英语口语中部分咒骂语的起源
文章来源:未知 文章作者:enread 发布时间:2014-12-16 04:54 字体: [ ]  进入论坛
(单词翻译:双击或拖选)
The "F" Bomb
 
The oldest theories trace the expletive-to-end-all-expletives back to Norwegian fukka and Swedish focka, both meaning "to copulate."
关于这个完爆所有其他咒骂语的词最早可以追溯到挪威语fukka和瑞典语focka,都是“交配”的意思。
 
Unfortunately, we don't have much evidence of use in English, partly because the original Oxford1 English Dictionary's creators reportedly considered it taboo2. The OED's second edition, however, cites "fukkit" in 1503, but the earliest current spelling appears as "Bischops ... may f*** thair fill and be vnmaryit" from poet Sir David Lyndesay in 1535.
不幸的是,我们在英语里并没有发现这个词使用的渊源,部分原因据说是牛津英语词典的最初编写者认为这个词是禁忌。然而,牛津英语词典第二版在1503年引用了"fukkit"。但是,这个词的拼写最早出现在1535年,诗人Sir David Lyndesay写道:"Bischops ... may f*** thair fill and be vnmaryit."
 
The "S" Word
 
Here, we actually have two words and two separate origins to consider: the noun and the verb.
在此,我们其实要考虑两个单词和两个不同的起源:名词和动词。
 
The noun nods to Old English scitte, meaning "purging3, diarrhea." And just the basic form of excrement4 stems from Old English scytel. The action, however, has a much more widespread history — Dutch schijten and German scheissen. The Proto-Indo-European base skie conveys the idea of separation, in this case, from the body.
名词来自古英语scitte,意为“净化、腹泻。”只不过是从古英语scitte起源的基本排泄物形式。然而,这个行为有更广泛的历史——荷兰语schijten和德语scheissen。这个原始印欧语系词在这里,传达的含义是与身体的分离。
 
Piss
 
Again, English includes two forms of this word, a noun and verb. The verb appeared in the 1300s from French pissier, "to urinate," and vulgar Latin, "pissiare." The noun came later, in the 1400s, and eventually morphed into an intensifying5 adjective — piss-poor, piss-ugly, etc. — around World War II.
同上,英语中这个词有两种形式,名词和动词。动词是在14世纪起源于法语pissier"小便"和通俗拉丁语"pissiare" 。名词出现于15世纪,要晚一些,最后在二战前后演变成一个激烈的形容词——比如说piss-poor(极其贫穷的)、 piss-ugly(极其丑陋的)等等。
 
Goddamn
 
Obviously a compound word of "God" and "damn." "Damn" comes from Latin damnare which means "to condemn6." And God originated with Norse goth. But when and how did we put the two together as a blasphemy7?
这显然是一个由"God" 和 "damn"构成的合成词。"Damn"是起源于拉丁文damnare,意思是“谴责"。God 起源于北欧歌特。但是,我们是什么时候以及怎么把这两个词结合起来作为亵渎神明的言词呢?
 
Let's thank the French for that. They started referring to the English as "les goddems" during the Hundred Years War because of their frequent profanity, according to Geoffrey Hughes' book, "A Social History of Foul8 Language, Oaths, and Profanity in English."
我们应该感谢法国人。根据杰弗里·休斯的著作《英国充斥粗言秽语、咒骂、亵渎”的社会历史》,他们在百年战争期间开始用"les goddems"形容英国人,因为他们经常亵渎神灵。
 
Hell
 
Our word for the worst possible place (religious or not) comes from Proto-Germanic haljo, "the underworld." Some relationship also exists between "cell" and "hell" through the Proto-Indo-European word for "to cover" or "conceal9" — kel.
我们用来形容可能出现的最坏的世界(无论是否与宗教相关)的词来源于原始日耳曼语haljo——“阴间”。 "cell" 和 "hell"还在原印欧语词存在某些关系,意为“覆盖”或“隐藏”。
 
Interestingly enough, the Biblical use of hell may stem from Old Norse Hel, the name of Loki's daughter in Norse mythology10. She rules over the evil dead much like Hades does in Greek tales.
有趣的是,圣经对地狱的用法可能起源于古斯堪的纳维亚语Hel,北欧神话中Loki的女儿的名字。就像希腊传说中的哈德斯,她统治着邪恶的死亡魂灵。
 
Bitch
 
Almost everyone knows a bitch is a female dog, probably from Old Norse bikkjuna. Its use as a term of contempt to women, though, began in the 1400s.
几乎所有人都知道bitch 是一条母狗。这可能源自古斯堪的纳维亚语bikkjuna。然而,直到15世纪,它才开始被用来蔑视妇女。
 
The word is first seen used this way in the Chester Plays of the 1400s. "Who callest thou queine, skabde bitch?" Basically, "Who are you calling a whore, you miserable11 bitch?”
这个词第一次这么用是在15世纪的切斯特剧。"Who callest thou queine, skabde bitch?"大致意思是“你个死婊子,你叫谁贱人呢?”
 
The verb, meaning "to complain," evolved as late at the 1930s.
动词用法直到20世纪30年代才出现,意为“抱怨”。


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1 Oxford Wmmz0a     
n.牛津(英国城市)
参考例句:
  1. At present he has become a Professor of Chemistry at Oxford.他现在已是牛津大学的化学教授了。
  2. This is where the road to Oxford joins the road to London.这是去牛津的路与去伦敦的路的汇合处。
2 taboo aqBwg     
n.禁忌,禁止接近,禁止使用;adj.禁忌的;v.禁忌,禁制,禁止
参考例句:
  1. The rude words are taboo in ordinary conversation.这些粗野的字眼在日常谈话中是禁忌的。
  2. Is there a taboo against sex before marriage in your society?在你们的社会里,婚前的性行为犯禁吗?
3 purging 832cd742d18664512602b0ae7fec22be     
清洗; 清除; 净化; 洗炉
参考例句:
  1. You learned the dry-mouthed, fear-purged, purging ecstasy of battle. 你体会到战斗中那种使人嘴巴发干的,战胜了恐惧并排除其他杂念的狂喜。
  2. Purging databases, configuring, and making other exceptional requests might fall into this category. 比如清空数据库、配置,以及其他特别的请求等都属于这个类别。 来自About Face 3交互设计精髓
4 excrement IhLzw     
n.排泄物,粪便
参考例句:
  1. The cage smelled of excrement.笼子里粪臭熏人。
  2. Clothing can also become contaminated with dust,feathers,and excrement.衣着则会受到微尘、羽毛和粪便的污染。
5 intensifying 6af105724a108def30288b810d78b276     
v.(使)增强, (使)加剧( intensify的现在分词 );增辉
参考例句:
  1. The allies are intensifying their air campaign. 联军部队正加大他们的空战强度。 来自辞典例句
  2. The rest of the European powers were in a state of intensifying congestion. 其余的欧洲强国则处于越来越拥挤的状态。 来自英汉非文学 - 历史
6 condemn zpxzp     
vt.谴责,指责;宣判(罪犯),判刑
参考例句:
  1. Some praise him,whereas others condemn him.有些人赞扬他,而有些人谴责他。
  2. We mustn't condemn him on mere suppositions.我们不可全凭臆测来指责他。
7 blasphemy noyyW     
n.亵渎,渎神
参考例句:
  1. His writings were branded as obscene and a blasphemy against God.他的著作被定为淫秽作品,是对上帝的亵渎。
  2. You have just heard his blasphemy!你刚刚听到他那番亵渎上帝的话了!
8 foul Sfnzy     
adj.污秽的;邪恶的;v.弄脏;妨害;犯规;n.犯规
参考例句:
  1. Take off those foul clothes and let me wash them.脱下那些脏衣服让我洗一洗。
  2. What a foul day it is!多么恶劣的天气!
9 conceal DpYzt     
v.隐藏,隐瞒,隐蔽
参考例句:
  1. He had to conceal his identity to escape the police.为了躲避警方,他只好隐瞒身份。
  2. He could hardly conceal his joy at his departure.他几乎掩饰不住临行时的喜悦。
10 mythology I6zzV     
n.神话,神话学,神话集
参考例句:
  1. In Greek mythology,Zeus was the ruler of Gods and men.在希腊神话中,宙斯是众神和人类的统治者。
  2. He is the hero of Greek mythology.他是希腊民间传说中的英雄。
11 miserable g18yk     
adj.悲惨的,痛苦的;可怜的,糟糕的
参考例句:
  1. It was miserable of you to make fun of him.你取笑他,这是可耻的。
  2. Her past life was miserable.她过去的生活很苦。
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