妇女能顶半边天
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    国际劳动妇女节 (International Working Women's Day) 又称“联合国妇女权益和国际和平日”(U.N. Day for Women's Rights and International Peace)或“三八”妇女节,是全世界劳动妇女团结战斗的光辉节日。在这一天,世界各大洲的妇女,不分国籍、种族、语言、文化、经济和政治的差异,共同关注妇女的人权。近几十年来,联合国的四次全球性会议加强了国际妇女运动,随着国际妇女运动的成长,妇女节取得了全球性的意义。这些进展使国际妇女节成为团结一致、协调努力要求妇女权利和妇女参与政治、经济和社会生活的日子。   国际劳动妇女节 ——1909年3月8日,美国芝加哥的劳动妇女和美国其他地区的纺织工业及服装工业的女工,为了要求增加工资、实行八小时工作制和获得选举权,举行了规模空前的大罢工和示威游行。这一斗争得到了美国和世界广大劳动妇女的热烈响应和支持。1910年8月,在丹麦哥本哈根召开了第二届国际社会主义妇女大会,出席会议的有17个国家的妇女代表。德国和国际工人运动的活动家、国际妇女书记处书记克拉拉·蔡特金,倡议把3月8日作为国际劳动妇女节。新中国成立后,中央人民政府政务院于1949年12月23日规定“三八”国际劳动妇女节为中国的劳动妇女节日,妇女放半天假。1977年,第32届联合国大会决定把3月8日作为“联合国妇女权益日和国际和平日”。         International Women's Day (8 March) is an occasion marked by women's groups around the world. This date is also commemorated1 at the United Nations and is designated in many countries as a national holiday. When women on all continents, often divided by national boundaries and by ethnic2, linguistic3, cultural, economic and political differences, come together to celebrate their Day, they can look back to a tradition that represents at least nine decades of struggle for equality, justice, peace and development.   International Women's Day is the story of ordinary women as makers4 of history; it is rooted in the centuries-old struggle of women to participate in society on an equal footing with men. In ancient Greece, Lysistrata initiated5 a sexual strike against men in order to end war; during the French Revolution, Parisian women calling for "liberty, equality, fraternity" marched on Versailles to demand women's suffrage6.   The idea of an International Women's Day first arose at the turn of the century, which in the industrialized world was a period of expansion and turbulence7, booming population growth and radical8 ideologies9. Following is a brief chronology of the most important events:   1909   In accordance with a declaration by the Socialist10 Party of America, the first National Woman's Day was observed across the United States on 28 February. Women continued to celebrate it on the last Sunday of that month through 1913.   1910   The Socialist International, meeting in Copenhagen, established a Women's Day, international in character, to honour the movement for women's rights and to assist in achieving universal suffrage for women. The proposal was greeted with unanimous approval by the conference of over 100 women from 17 countries, which included the first three women elected to the Finnish parliament. No fixed11 date was selected for the observance.   1911   As a result of the decision taken at Copenhagen the previous year, International Women's Day was marked for the first time (19 March) in Austria, Denmark, Germany and Switzerland, where more than one million women and men attended rallies. In addition to the right to vote and to hold public office, they demanded the right to work, to vocational training and to an end to discrimination on the job.   Less than a week later, on 25 March, the tragic12 Triangle Fire in New York City took the lives of more than 140 working girls, most of them Italian and Jewish immigrants. This event had a significant impact on labour legislation in the United States, and the working conditions leading up to the disaster were invoked13 during subsequent observances of International Women's Day.   1913-1914   As part of the peace movement brewing14 on the eve of World War I, Russian women observed their first International Women's Day on the last Sunday in February 1913. Elsewhere in Europe, on or around 8 March of the following year, women held rallies either to protest the war or to express solidarity15 with their sisters.   1917   With 2 million Russian soldiers dead in the war, Russian women again chose the last Sunday in February to strike for "bread and peace". Political leaders opposed the timing16 of the strike, but the women went on anyway. The rest is history: Four days later the Czar was forced to abdicate17 and the provisional Government granted women the right to vote. That historic Sunday fell on 23 February on the Julian calendar then in use in Russia, but on 8 March on the Gregorian calendar in use elsewhere.   Since those early years, International Women's Day has assumed a new global dimension for women in developed and developing countries alike. The growing international women's movement, which has been strengthened by four global United Nations women's conferences, has helped make the commemoration a rallying point for coordinated18 efforts to demand women's rights and participation19 in the political and economic process. Increasingly, International Women's Day is a time to reflect on progress made, to call for change and to celebrate acts of courage and determination by ordinary women who have played an extraordinary role in the history of women's rights.   The Role of the United NationsFew causes promoted by the United Nations have generated more intense and widespread support than the campaign to promote and protect the equal rights of women. The Charter of the United Nations, signed in San Francisco in 1945, was the first international agreement to proclaim gender20 equality as a fundamental human right. Since then, the Organization has helped create a historic legacy21 of internationally agreed strategies, standards, programmes and goals to advance the status of women worldwide.   Over the years, United Nations action for the advancement22 of women has taken four clear directions: promotion23 of legal measures; mobilization of public opinion and international action; training and research, including the compilation24 of gender desegregated statistics; and direct assistance to disadvantaged groups. Today a central organizing principle of the work of the United Nations is that no enduring solution to society's most threatening social, economic and political problems can be found without the full participation, and the full empowerment, of the world's women.


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1 commemorated 5095d6b593f459f1eacbc41739a5f72f     
v.纪念,庆祝( commemorate的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  1. Lincoln commemorated the soldiers killed in the battle in his address. 林肯在演说中表扬阵亡将士。 来自辞典例句
  2. You'll be commemorated for killing a spy, and be specially discharged. 你们每杀一个间谍将会被记录到特殊档案。 来自电影对白
2 ethnic jiAz3     
adj.人种的,种族的,异教徒的
参考例句:
  1. This music would sound more ethnic if you played it in steel drums.如果你用钢鼓演奏,这首乐曲将更具民族特色。
  2. The plan is likely only to aggravate ethnic frictions.这一方案很有可能只会加剧种族冲突。
3 linguistic k0zxn     
adj.语言的,语言学的
参考例句:
  1. She is pursuing her linguistic researches.她在从事语言学的研究。
  2. The ability to write is a supreme test of linguistic competence.写作能力是对语言能力的最高形式的测试。
4 makers 22a4efff03ac42c1785d09a48313d352     
n.制造者,制造商(maker的复数形式)
参考例句:
  1. The makers of the product assured us that there had been no sacrifice of quality. 这一产品的制造商向我们保证说他们没有牺牲质量。
  2. The makers are about to launch out a new product. 制造商们马上要生产一种新产品。 来自《简明英汉词典》
5 initiated 9cd5622f36ab9090359c3cf3ca4ddda3     
n. 创始人 adj. 新加入的 vt. 开始,创始,启蒙,介绍加入
参考例句:
  1. He has not yet been thoroughly initiated into the mysteries of computers. 他对计算机的奥秘尚未入门。
  2. The artist initiated the girl into the art world in France. 这个艺术家介绍这个女孩加入巴黎艺术界。
6 suffrage NhpyX     
n.投票,选举权,参政权
参考例句:
  1. The question of woman suffrage sets them at variance.妇女参政的问题使他们发生争执。
  2. The voters gave their suffrage to him.投票人都投票选他。
7 turbulence 8m9wZ     
n.喧嚣,狂暴,骚乱,湍流
参考例句:
  1. The turbulence caused the plane to turn over.空气的激流导致飞机翻转。
  2. The world advances amidst turbulence.世界在动荡中前进。
8 radical hA8zu     
n.激进份子,原子团,根号;adj.根本的,激进的,彻底的
参考例句:
  1. The patient got a radical cure in the hospital.病人在医院得到了根治。
  2. She is radical in her demands.她的要求十分偏激。
9 ideologies 619df0528e07e84f318a32708414df52     
n.思想(体系)( ideology的名词复数 );思想意识;意识形态;观念形态
参考例句:
  1. There is no fundamental diversity between the two ideologies. 这两种思想意识之间并没有根本的分歧。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  2. Radical ideologies require to contrast to their own goodness the wickedness of some other system. 凡是过激的意识形态,都需要有另外一个丑恶的制度作对比,才能衬托出自己的善良。 来自辞典例句
10 socialist jwcws     
n.社会主义者;adj.社会主义的
参考例句:
  1. China is a socialist country,and a developing country as well.中国是一个社会主义国家,也是一个发展中国家。
  2. His father was an ardent socialist.他父亲是一个热情的社会主义者。
11 fixed JsKzzj     
adj.固定的,不变的,准备好的;(计算机)固定的
参考例句:
  1. Have you two fixed on a date for the wedding yet?你们俩选定婚期了吗?
  2. Once the aim is fixed,we should not change it arbitrarily.目标一旦确定,我们就不应该随意改变。
12 tragic inaw2     
adj.悲剧的,悲剧性的,悲惨的
参考例句:
  1. The effect of the pollution on the beaches is absolutely tragic.污染海滩后果可悲。
  2. Charles was a man doomed to tragic issues.查理是个注定不得善终的人。
13 invoked fabb19b279de1e206fa6d493923723ba     
v.援引( invoke的过去式和过去分词 );行使(权利等);祈求救助;恳求
参考例句:
  1. It is unlikely that libel laws will be invoked. 不大可能诉诸诽谤法。
  2. She had invoked the law in her own defence. 她援引法律为自己辩护。 来自《简明英汉词典》
14 brewing eaabd83324a59add9a6769131bdf81b5     
n. 酿造, 一次酿造的量 动词brew的现在分词形式
参考例句:
  1. It was obvious that a big storm was brewing up. 很显然,一场暴风雨正在酝酿中。
  2. She set about brewing some herb tea. 她动手泡一些药茶。
15 solidarity ww9wa     
n.团结;休戚相关
参考例句:
  1. They must preserve their solidarity.他们必须维护他们的团结。
  2. The solidarity among China's various nationalities is as firm as a rock.中国各族人民之间的团结坚如磐石。
16 timing rgUzGC     
n.时间安排,时间选择
参考例句:
  1. The timing of the meeting is not convenient.会议的时间安排不合适。
  2. The timing of our statement is very opportune.我们发表声明选择的时机很恰当。
17 abdicate 9ynz8     
v.让位,辞职,放弃
参考例句:
  1. The reason I wnat to abdicate is to try something different.我辞职是因为我想尝试些不一样的东西。
  2. Yuan Shikai forced emperor to abdicate and hand over power to him.袁世凯逼迫皇帝逊位,把政权交给了他。
18 coordinated 72452d15f78aec5878c1559a1fbb5383     
adj.协调的
参考例句:
  1. The sound has to be coordinated with the picture. 声音必须和画面协调一致。
  2. The numerous existing statutes are complicated and poorly coordinated. 目前繁多的法令既十分复杂又缺乏快调。 来自英汉非文学 - 环境法 - 环境法
19 participation KS9zu     
n.参与,参加,分享
参考例句:
  1. Some of the magic tricks called for audience participation.有些魔术要求有观众的参与。
  2. The scheme aims to encourage increased participation in sporting activities.这个方案旨在鼓励大众更多地参与体育活动。
20 gender slSyD     
n.(生理上的)性,(名词、代词等的)性
参考例句:
  1. French differs from English in having gender for all nouns.法语不同于英语,所有的名词都有性。
  2. Women are sometimes denied opportunities solely because of their gender.妇女有时仅仅因为性别而无法获得种种机会。
21 legacy 59YzD     
n.遗产,遗赠;先人(或过去)留下的东西
参考例句:
  1. They are the most precious cultural legacy our forefathers left.它们是我们祖先留下来的最宝贵的文化遗产。
  2. He thinks the legacy is a gift from the Gods.他认为这笔遗产是天赐之物。
22 advancement tzgziL     
n.前进,促进,提升
参考例句:
  1. His new contribution to the advancement of physiology was well appreciated.他对生理学发展的新贡献获得高度赞赏。
  2. The aim of a university should be the advancement of learning.大学的目标应是促进学术。
23 promotion eRLxn     
n.提升,晋级;促销,宣传
参考例句:
  1. The teacher conferred with the principal about Dick's promotion.教师与校长商谈了迪克的升级问题。
  2. The clerk was given a promotion and an increase in salary.那个职员升了级,加了薪。
24 compilation kptzy     
n.编译,编辑
参考例句:
  1. One of the first steps taken was the compilation of a report.首先采取的步骤之一是写一份报告。
  2. The compilation of such diagrams,is of lasting value for astronomy.绘制这样的图对天文学有永恒的价值。
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