Dunhuang Mogao Caves
文章来源:未知 文章作者:meng 发布时间:2010-10-19 01:13 字体: [ ]  进入论坛
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Brief Introduction The grottoes(岩穴,洞穴) in the Mogao Caves are the world's largest and oldest treasure house of Buddhist2 art. The Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes, also known as the One-Thousand-Buddha3 Grottoes, are located on the eastern, rocky side of Singing Sand Mountain, near Dunhang City, Gansu Province. According to historical records, the carving4 of them was started in 366 AD and continued for about 1,000 years. Now, there are 492 grottoes in existence, with some 45,000 square m of murals(壁画) and 2,400-odd painted clay figures. The painted clay figures vary greatly in size, with the largest one being 33 m high and the smallest only 10 cm. Painted clay sculptures and murals in the Mogao Grottoes have mainly Buddhist themes, but they also include human figures, reflecting various societies and cultures of different times. Besides, they also demonstrate painting styles of different times in layout, figure design, delineation5(描述) and coloring, as well as the integration6 of Chinese and Western arts. In 1900, a total of 4,500 valuable cultural relics7(文化遗产) dating from 256 AD to 1002 were found in the Buddhist Sutra Cave here, including silk paintings, embroidery8(刺绣) and documents in rare languages such as ancient Tibetan and Sanskrit. This is regarded as one of the world's greatest oriental cultural discoveries. Cultural Heritage The Mogao Grottoes show examples of various types of art, such as architecture, painting and statuary(雕像) . By inheriting the artistic9 traditions of the central and western regions of China and absorbing the merits of ancient arts from India, Greece and Iran, ancient Chinese artists created Buddhist art works with strong local features. These art works are treasures of human civilization, providing valuable material for studies of the politics, economy, culture, religion, ethnic10 relations and foreign exchanges of China in olden times. Besides, there are also about 50,000 items of scriptures11(经文) , documents, paintings and weavings written in several languages spanning the period from the Three Kingdoms Period to Northern Song Dynasty. Grottoes So far there are 492 grottoes, with murals and painted clay figures. There are meditation12(冥想,沉思) grottoes, Buddha hall grottoes, temple grottoes, vault-roofed grottoes and shadow grottoes. The largest grotto1 is 40 m high and 30 m wide, whereas the smallest is less than one foot high. Painted Clay Figures These are the main treasures of the Dunhuang Grottoes. The figures are in different forms, including round figures and relief figures. The tallest is 34.5 m high, while the smallest is only 2 cm. These painted clay figures show such a great variety of themes and subject matter, as well as advanced techniques, that the Mogao Grottoes are generally regarded as the world's leading museum of Buddhist painted clay figures. Murals The murals in the Mogao Grottoes display Buddhist sutras, natural scenery, buildings, mountain and water paintings, flower patterns, flying Apsaras(飞天) (Buddhist fairies) and ancient farming and production scenes. There are 1,045 murals extant, with a total area of 45,000 sq. m. They are artistic records of historical changes and customs and traditions from the 4th to the 18th centuries. Excavated13 Articles In 1900, about 50,000 cultural relics were found in a sanctum(圣所,密室) sealed behind the northern wall of Grotto No. 16. These articles included Buddhist sutras(经典,佛经) , documents, embroidery works and paintings from the 4th to the 12th centuries. Apart from ancient Chinese documents, there were also documents in other ancient languages, including Tibetan, Sanskrit and Uygur. The subjects of these documents include religion, literature, contracts, ledgers14 and official files. This discovery, which attracted world attention, is of great research value for supplementing and emending ancient Chinese documents. Buddhist Culture The Sui Dynasty (518-618) was a golden age for Buddhism15 in Chinese history. And the Mogao Grottoes experienced their heyday16 of construction during this dynasty. Born and brought up in a Buddhist nunnery, Emperor Yang Jian, founder17 of the Sui Dynasty, was an enthusiastic Buddhist. After he united the whole country, he made Buddhism the national religion. About 5,000 temples were built, thousands of Buddhist sculptures were carved, and there were some 500,000 Buddhist monks18 and nuns19. His son Emperor Yang Guang was also keen on Buddhism. He had 1,000 copies of the Fahua Sutra published and established a school of Buddhism. In this period, a large number of grottoes were carved at Mogao. The most common form of grotto dating from this dynasty is the inverted20 conical grotto. A typical example is the seven-layer conical tower in Grotto No. 303, converted from a central tower pillar. Murals in this period were freed from the limit of foreign arts and demonstrated a liberated21 dynamic creativity. Generally, they show three major features. First, murals depicting22 how Buddhists23 underwent arduous24 training and endured humiliation25 for progress in this life receded26(后退,减弱) , and murals depicting easy ways to become a Buddha and attain27 Paradise began to occupy prominent positions in the grottoes. Second, Avalokitesvara was no longer an accompanying figure for Sakyamuni Buddha. Instead, she was depicted28 separately and with more grandeur29(壮丽,庄严) . The appearance of the separate Avalokitesvara marked progress in China's Buddhism. Third, as secularization30(世俗化,还俗) of Buddhist art began to emerge, figures in murals in this period were more lifelike.


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1 grotto h5Byz     
n.洞穴
参考例句:
  1. We reached a beautiful grotto,whose entrance was almost hiden by the vine.我们到达了一个美丽的洞穴,洞的进口几乎被藤蔓遮掩著。
  2. Water trickles through an underground grotto.水沿着地下岩洞流淌。
2 Buddhist USLy6     
adj./n.佛教的,佛教徒
参考例句:
  1. The old lady fell down in adoration before Buddhist images.那老太太在佛像面前顶礼膜拜。
  2. In the eye of the Buddhist,every worldly affair is vain.在佛教徒的眼里,人世上一切事情都是空的。
3 Buddha 9x1z0O     
n.佛;佛像;佛陀
参考例句:
  1. Several women knelt down before the statue of Buddha and prayed.几个妇女跪在佛像前祈祷。
  2. He has kept the figure of Buddha for luck.为了图吉利他一直保存着这尊佛像。
4 carving 5wezxw     
n.雕刻品,雕花
参考例句:
  1. All the furniture in the room had much carving.房间里所有的家具上都有许多雕刻。
  2. He acquired the craft of wood carving in his native town.他在老家学会了木雕手艺。
5 delineation wxrxV     
n.记述;描写
参考例句:
  1. Biography must to some extent delineate characters.传记必须在一定程度上描绘人物。
  2. Delineation of channels is the first step of geologic evaluation.勾划河道的轮廓是地质解译的第一步。
6 integration G5Pxk     
n.一体化,联合,结合
参考例句:
  1. We are working to bring about closer political integration in the EU.我们正在努力实现欧盟內部更加紧密的政治一体化。
  2. This was the greatest event in the annals of European integration.这是欧洲统一史上最重大的事件。
7 relics UkMzSr     
[pl.]n.遗物,遗迹,遗产;遗体,尸骸
参考例句:
  1. The area is a treasure house of archaeological relics. 这个地区是古文物遗迹的宝库。
  2. Xi'an is an ancient city full of treasures and saintly relics. 西安是一个有很多宝藏和神圣的遗物的古老城市。
8 embroidery Wjkz7     
n.绣花,刺绣;绣制品
参考例句:
  1. This exquisite embroidery won people's great admiration.这件精美的绣品,使人惊叹不已。
  2. This is Jane's first attempt at embroidery.这是简第一次试着绣花。
9 artistic IeWyG     
adj.艺术(家)的,美术(家)的;善于艺术创作的
参考例句:
  1. The picture on this screen is a good artistic work.这屏风上的画是件很好的艺术品。
  2. These artistic handicrafts are very popular with foreign friends.外国朋友很喜欢这些美术工艺品。
10 ethnic jiAz3     
adj.人种的,种族的,异教徒的
参考例句:
  1. This music would sound more ethnic if you played it in steel drums.如果你用钢鼓演奏,这首乐曲将更具民族特色。
  2. The plan is likely only to aggravate ethnic frictions.这一方案很有可能只会加剧种族冲突。
11 scriptures 720536f64aa43a43453b1181a16638ad     
经文,圣典( scripture的名词复数 ); 经典
参考例句:
  1. Here the apostle Peter affirms his belief that the Scriptures are 'inspired'. 使徒彼得在此表达了他相信《圣经》是通过默感写成的。
  2. You won't find this moral precept in the scriptures. 你在《圣经》中找不到这种道德规范。
12 meditation yjXyr     
n.熟虑,(尤指宗教的)默想,沉思,(pl.)冥想录
参考例句:
  1. This peaceful garden lends itself to meditation.这个恬静的花园适于冥想。
  2. I'm sorry to interrupt your meditation.很抱歉,我打断了你的沉思。
13 excavated 3cafdb6f7c26ffe41daf7aa353505858     
v.挖掘( excavate的过去式和过去分词 );开凿;挖出;发掘
参考例句:
  1. The site has been excavated by archaeologists. 这个遗址已被考古学家发掘出来。
  2. The archaeologists excavated an ancient fortress. 考古学家们发掘出一个古堡。 来自《简明英汉词典》
14 ledgers 73a3b1ea51494741c86cba193a27bb69     
n.分类账( ledger的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  1. The ledgers and account books had all been destroyed. 分类账本和账簿都被销毁了。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  2. The ledgers had all been destroyed. 账簿都被销毁了。 来自辞典例句
15 Buddhism 8SZy6     
n.佛教(教义)
参考例句:
  1. Buddhism was introduced into China about 67 AD.佛教是在公元67年左右传入中国的。
  2. Many people willingly converted to Buddhism.很多人情愿皈依佛教。
16 heyday CdTxI     
n.全盛时期,青春期
参考例句:
  1. The 19th century was the heyday of steam railways.19世纪是蒸汽机车鼎盛的时代。
  2. She was a great singer in her heyday.她在自己的黄金时代是个了不起的歌唱家。
17 Founder wigxF     
n.创始者,缔造者
参考例句:
  1. He was extolled as the founder of their Florentine school.他被称颂为佛罗伦萨画派的鼻祖。
  2. According to the old tradition,Romulus was the founder of Rome.按照古老的传说,罗穆卢斯是古罗马的建国者。
18 monks 218362e2c5f963a82756748713baf661     
n.修道士,僧侣( monk的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  1. The monks lived a very ascetic life. 僧侣过着很清苦的生活。
  2. He had been trained rigorously by the monks. 他接受过修道士的严格训练。 来自《简明英汉词典》
19 nuns ce03d5da0bb9bc79f7cd2b229ef14d4a     
n.(通常指基督教的)修女, (佛教的)尼姑( nun的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  1. Ah Q had always had the greatest contempt for such people as little nuns. 小尼姑之流是阿Q本来视如草芥的。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
  2. Nuns are under vows of poverty, chastity and obedience. 修女须立誓保持清贫、贞洁、顺从。 来自辞典例句
20 inverted 184401f335d6b8661e04dfea47b9dcd5     
adj.反向的,倒转的v.使倒置,使反转( invert的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  1. Only direct speech should go inside inverted commas. 只有直接引语应放在引号内。
  2. Inverted flight is an acrobatic manoeuvre of the plane. 倒飞是飞机的一种特技动作。 来自《简明英汉词典》
21 liberated YpRzMi     
a.无拘束的,放纵的
参考例句:
  1. The city was liberated by the advancing army. 军队向前挺进,解放了那座城市。
  2. The heat brings about a chemical reaction, and oxygen is liberated. 热量引起化学反应,释放出氧气。
22 depicting eaa7ce0ad4790aefd480461532dd76e4     
描绘,描画( depict的现在分词 ); 描述
参考例句:
  1. a painting depicting the Virgin and Child 一幅描绘童贞马利亚和圣子耶稣的画
  2. The movie depicting the battles and bloodshed is bound to strike home. 这部描写战斗和流血牺牲的影片一定会取得预期效果。
23 Buddhists 5f3c74ef01ae0fe3724e91f586462b77     
n.佛教徒( Buddhist的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  1. The Jesuits in a phase of ascendancy, persecuted and insulted the Buddhists with great acrimony. 处于地位上升阶段的耶稣会修士迫害佛教徒,用尖刻的语言辱骂他们。 来自英汉非文学 - 历史
  2. The return of Saivite rule to central Java had brought no antagonism between Buddhists and Hindus. 湿婆教在中爪哇恢复统治后,并没有导致佛教徒与印度教徒之间的对立。 来自辞典例句
24 arduous 5vxzd     
adj.艰苦的,费力的,陡峭的
参考例句:
  1. We must have patience in doing arduous work.我们做艰苦的工作要有耐性。
  2. The task was more arduous than he had calculated.这项任务比他所估计的要艰巨得多。
25 humiliation Jd3zW     
n.羞辱
参考例句:
  1. He suffered the humiliation of being forced to ask for his cards.他蒙受了被迫要求辞职的羞辱。
  2. He will wish to revenge his humiliation in last Season's Final.他会为在上个季度的决赛中所受的耻辱而报复的。
26 receded a802b3a97de1e72adfeda323ad5e0023     
v.逐渐远离( recede的过去式和过去分词 );向后倾斜;自原处后退或避开别人的注视;尤指问题
参考例句:
  1. The floodwaters have now receded. 洪水现已消退。
  2. The sound of the truck receded into the distance. 卡车的声音渐渐在远处消失了。
27 attain HvYzX     
vt.达到,获得,完成
参考例句:
  1. I used the scientific method to attain this end. 我用科学的方法来达到这一目的。
  2. His painstaking to attain his goal in life is praiseworthy. 他为实现人生目标所下的苦功是值得称赞的。
28 depicted f657dbe7a96d326c889c083bf5fcaf24     
描绘,描画( depict的过去式和过去分词 ); 描述
参考例句:
  1. Other animals were depicted on the periphery of the group. 其他动物在群像的外围加以修饰。
  2. They depicted the thrilling situation to us in great detail. 他们向我们详细地描述了那激动人心的场面。
29 grandeur hejz9     
n.伟大,崇高,宏伟,庄严,豪华
参考例句:
  1. The grandeur of the Great Wall is unmatched.长城的壮观是独一无二的。
  2. These ruins sufficiently attest the former grandeur of the place.这些遗迹充分证明此处昔日的宏伟。
30 secularization 787a2b635d702e9eb3b1d450b0e32682     
n.凡俗化,还俗,把教育从宗教中分离
参考例句:
  1. But secularization of modernity society made the two prerequisites impossibility. 然而现代社会的世俗化使得这两个前提不复存在。 来自互联网
  2. So heart will be also inadvertently been secularization of. 以至于心也在不经意间被俗化了。 来自互联网
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