Potala Palace
文章来源:未知 文章作者:meng 发布时间:2010-10-19 01:29 字体: [ ]  进入论坛
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Brief Introduction Situated1 on Potala Mountain in Lhasa, capital of the Tibet Autonomous2(自治的,自主的) Region, the Potala Palace was first built in the 7th century, for the wedding of the Tibetan king Songtsan Gompo and Princess Wencheng of the Tang Empire. Since it was completed, the palace has been expanded many times. In 1645, the 5th Dalai Lama was appointed by the government of the Qing Dynasty as the local temporal and religious(宗教的,虔诚的) leader of Tibet, and the palace was reconstructed. In 1653, the 5th Dalai Lama moved from Drepung Monastery3 to the palace. Thus the Potala Palace became the political center of Tibet. The Potala Palace's halls include worship and pagoda4(宝塔) halls, the North Square, the South Square and the Dragon King Pond. The Main Building has 13 floors, with a height of some 110 m and a width of about 360 m. It is surrounded by eight temples, where there are tens of thousands of Buddhist5 statues(雕像) . In the Buddhist Practice Cave are preserved the paintings of Songtsan Gompo and Wencheng made in the 7th century. Pagodas6 in the pagoda halls for each Dalai Lama are well built, in particular, the pagoda for the 5th Dalai Lama, which has a gold covering and is decorated with valuable jewels. Another important building is Qingsha, where the ministers for Tibetan affairs of the Qing Dynasty presided over the inauguration7(就职) of the Dalai Lamas. Cultural Heritage Built on a mountain slope over 4000 m above sea level, the Potala Palace is known as the Pearl on the Roof of the World. Its construction and furnishing reflect the superb(极好的,华丽的) skills of ancient artisans(工匠,技工) and the great attainments8 of Tibetan architecture. Superb Architectural Achievements The Potala Palace is composed of the Red Palace, the White Palace and some other accompanying buildings. These buildings were constructed at different times, but they are all in harmony with the surrounding terrain9, so that the whole building complex appears magnificent and integrated. It is a real ingenious(有创造性的,机灵的) masterpiece. A Paradigm10 of Perfect Integration11 of Buddhist Temples with Palace Buildings The Potala Palace is the most successful structure integrating Tibetan Buddhism12 with palace buildings among dozens of Tibetan monumental buildings. Exquisite13 Furnishings The Potala Palace is a model not only for its magnificent building, but also its delicate furnishings, including carvings14 and paintings. Historical and Religious Implications The Potala Palace used to be a center for both temporal and religious administration. It is closely connected with many important figures in the history of Tibet, such as Songtsan Gompo, Princess Wencheng and several generations of Dalai Lamas. Tibetan Buddhism Potala is a transliterated Sanskrit word. It is said that Tibetan Buddhists15 thought that Mt. Hongshan, the original name of the Potala Mountain, was as pure as Potaraka Mountain, the sacred place where Mother Buddha16 lived. So they renamed the mountain. When the palace was built, it was named after this sacred mountain. Tibetan Buddhism believes in the doctrine17(教义,信条) of Three Realms, that is, the desire realm, the form realm and the form-free realm. The vertical18 layout of the Potala Palace -- from the Red Palace on the very top to the White Palace at the bottom -- corresponds to that Buddhist doctrine. Expanded size and striking contrast in layout fully19 demonstrate the power and dignity of Buddhism. The symbolic21 appearance of the palace indicates that only by detaching(分离) oneself from the secular22 world and converting to Buddhism can one reach the Heavenly Paradise. Legends Located in Bajiao Street, Lhasa, the Jokhang Monastery was first built in the middle of the 7th century. It is said that Lhasa was still a vast swampland(沼泽地) when Princess Wencheng arrived. She found no Buddhist temple there, and had to set up her statue of Sakyamuni in a tent. By observing the terrain of Lhasa, the princess believed that the whole place was just like the figure of a female demon20(恶魔,魔鬼) . In order to conquer this demon, the princess decided23 to fill in the swamp and build a large Buddhist temple. She hoped that the boundless24 power of Sakyamuni could bring stability and prosperity to the local people. Her proposal was actively25 supported by Songtsan Gompo. The king ordered the construction at once and he himself even did some of the labor26. Two years later, the grand Jokhang Monastery was completed. As it attracted more and more monks27, Lhasa became prosperous. Jokhang Monastery First built in 647, and located in the center of Lhasa City, the Jokhang Monastery is Tibet's oldest wood-and-stone building in existence. With a total area of 25,100 sq. m, the monastery consists of temples and scripture28 halls. The main Buddhist Hall has four stories, and the gilded29(镀金的,装饰的) copper30 statue of Sakyamuni brought by Princess Wencheng is still worshipped in its own hall. In front of the monastery stands a monument to the establishment of alliance relations between the Tang Dynasty and Tibet, and the willow31 tree planted by Princess Wencheng, They are historical evidence of over 1,000 years of friendship between the Han and Tibetan peoples. On the front of the monument is inscribed32 the history of the monument in both the Chinese and Tibetan languages, and the process and significance of the establishment of the alliance.


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1 situated JiYzBH     
adj.坐落在...的,处于某种境地的
参考例句:
  1. The village is situated at the margin of a forest.村子位于森林的边缘。
  2. She is awkwardly situated.她的处境困难。
2 autonomous DPyyv     
adj.自治的;独立的
参考例句:
  1. They proudly declared themselves part of a new autonomous province.他们自豪地宣布成为新自治省的一部分。
  2. This is a matter that comes within the jurisdiction of the autonomous region.这件事是属于自治区权限以内的事务。
3 monastery 2EOxe     
n.修道院,僧院,寺院
参考例句:
  1. They found an icon in the monastery.他们在修道院中发现了一个圣像。
  2. She was appointed the superior of the monastery two years ago.两年前她被任命为这个修道院的院长。
4 pagoda dmtzDh     
n.宝塔(尤指印度和远东的多层宝塔),(印度教或佛教的)塔式庙宇
参考例句:
  1. The ancient pagoda is undergoing repairs.那座古塔正在修缮中。
  2. The pagoda is reflected upside down in the water.宝塔影子倒立在水里。
5 Buddhist USLy6     
adj./n.佛教的,佛教徒
参考例句:
  1. The old lady fell down in adoration before Buddhist images.那老太太在佛像面前顶礼膜拜。
  2. In the eye of the Buddhist,every worldly affair is vain.在佛教徒的眼里,人世上一切事情都是空的。
6 pagodas 4fb2d9696f682cba602953e76b9169d4     
塔,宝塔( pagoda的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  1. A dream is more romantic than scarlet pagodas by a silver sea. 梦中的风光比银白海洋旁边绯红的宝塔更加旖旎艳丽。
  2. Tabinshwehti placed new spires on the chief Mon pagodas. 莽瑞体在孟人的主要佛塔上加建了新的塔顶。
7 inauguration 3cQzR     
n.开幕、就职典礼
参考例句:
  1. The inauguration of a President of the United States takes place on January 20.美国总统的就职典礼于一月二十日举行。
  2. Three celebrated tenors sang at the president's inauguration.3位著名的男高音歌手在总统就职仪式上演唱。
8 attainments 3f47ba9938f08311bdf016e1de15e082     
成就,造诣; 获得( attainment的名词复数 ); 达到; 造诣; 成就
参考例句:
  1. a young woman of impressive educational attainments 一位学业成就斐然的年轻女子
  2. He is a scholar of the highest attainments in this field. 他在这一领域是一位颇有造就的学者。
9 terrain sgeyk     
n.地面,地形,地图
参考例句:
  1. He had made a detailed study of the terrain.他对地形作了缜密的研究。
  2. He knows the terrain of this locality like the back of his hand.他对这一带的地形了如指掌。
10 paradigm c48zJ     
n.例子,模范,词形变化表
参考例句:
  1. He had become the paradigm of the successful man. 他已经成为成功人士的典范。
  2. Moreover,the results of this research can be the new learning paradigm for digital design studios.除此之外,本研究的研究成果也可以为数位设计课程建立一个新的学习范例。
11 integration G5Pxk     
n.一体化,联合,结合
参考例句:
  1. We are working to bring about closer political integration in the EU.我们正在努力实现欧盟內部更加紧密的政治一体化。
  2. This was the greatest event in the annals of European integration.这是欧洲统一史上最重大的事件。
12 Buddhism 8SZy6     
n.佛教(教义)
参考例句:
  1. Buddhism was introduced into China about 67 AD.佛教是在公元67年左右传入中国的。
  2. Many people willingly converted to Buddhism.很多人情愿皈依佛教。
13 exquisite zhez1     
adj.精美的;敏锐的;剧烈的,感觉强烈的
参考例句:
  1. I was admiring the exquisite workmanship in the mosaic.我当时正在欣赏镶嵌画的精致做工。
  2. I still remember the exquisite pleasure I experienced in Bali.我依然记得在巴厘岛所经历的那种剧烈的快感。
14 carvings 3ccde9120da2aaa238c9785046cb8f86     
n.雕刻( carving的名词复数 );雕刻术;雕刻品;雕刻物
参考例句:
  1. The desk was ornamented with many carvings. 这桌子装饰有很多雕刻物。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  2. Shell carvings are a specialty of the town. 贝雕是该城的特产。 来自《简明英汉词典》
15 Buddhists 5f3c74ef01ae0fe3724e91f586462b77     
n.佛教徒( Buddhist的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  1. The Jesuits in a phase of ascendancy, persecuted and insulted the Buddhists with great acrimony. 处于地位上升阶段的耶稣会修士迫害佛教徒,用尖刻的语言辱骂他们。 来自英汉非文学 - 历史
  2. The return of Saivite rule to central Java had brought no antagonism between Buddhists and Hindus. 湿婆教在中爪哇恢复统治后,并没有导致佛教徒与印度教徒之间的对立。 来自辞典例句
16 Buddha 9x1z0O     
n.佛;佛像;佛陀
参考例句:
  1. Several women knelt down before the statue of Buddha and prayed.几个妇女跪在佛像前祈祷。
  2. He has kept the figure of Buddha for luck.为了图吉利他一直保存着这尊佛像。
17 doctrine Pkszt     
n.教义;主义;学说
参考例句:
  1. He was impelled to proclaim his doctrine.他不得不宣扬他的教义。
  2. The council met to consider changes to doctrine.宗教议会开会考虑更改教义。
18 vertical ZiywU     
adj.垂直的,顶点的,纵向的;n.垂直物,垂直的位置
参考例句:
  1. The northern side of the mountain is almost vertical.这座山的北坡几乎是垂直的。
  2. Vertical air motions are not measured by this system.垂直气流的运动不用这种系统来测量。
19 fully Gfuzd     
adv.完全地,全部地,彻底地;充分地
参考例句:
  1. The doctor asked me to breathe in,then to breathe out fully.医生让我先吸气,然后全部呼出。
  2. They soon became fully integrated into the local community.他们很快就完全融入了当地人的圈子。
20 demon Wmdyj     
n.魔鬼,恶魔
参考例句:
  1. The demon of greed ruined the miser's happiness.贪得无厌的恶习毁掉了那个守财奴的幸福。
  2. He has been possessed by the demon of disease for years.他多年来病魔缠身。
21 symbolic ErgwS     
adj.象征性的,符号的,象征主义的
参考例句:
  1. It is symbolic of the fighting spirit of modern womanhood.它象征着现代妇女的战斗精神。
  2. The Christian ceremony of baptism is a symbolic act.基督教的洗礼仪式是一种象征性的做法。
22 secular GZmxM     
n.牧师,凡人;adj.世俗的,现世的,不朽的
参考例句:
  1. We live in an increasingly secular society.我们生活在一个日益非宗教的社会。
  2. Britain is a plural society in which the secular predominates.英国是个世俗主导的多元社会。
23 decided lvqzZd     
adj.决定了的,坚决的;明显的,明确的
参考例句:
  1. This gave them a decided advantage over their opponents.这使他们比对手具有明显的优势。
  2. There is a decided difference between British and Chinese way of greeting.英国人和中国人打招呼的方式有很明显的区别。
24 boundless kt8zZ     
adj.无限的;无边无际的;巨大的
参考例句:
  1. The boundless woods were sleeping in the deep repose of nature.无边无际的森林在大自然静寂的怀抱中酣睡着。
  2. His gratitude and devotion to the Party was boundless.他对党无限感激、无限忠诚。
25 actively lzezni     
adv.积极地,勤奋地
参考例句:
  1. During this period all the students were actively participating.在这节课中所有的学生都积极参加。
  2. We are actively intervening to settle a quarrel.我们正在积极调解争执。
26 labor P9Tzs     
n.劳动,努力,工作,劳工;分娩;vi.劳动,努力,苦干;vt.详细分析;麻烦
参考例句:
  1. We are never late in satisfying him for his labor.我们从不延误付给他劳动报酬。
  2. He was completely spent after two weeks of hard labor.艰苦劳动两周后,他已经疲惫不堪了。
27 monks 218362e2c5f963a82756748713baf661     
n.修道士,僧侣( monk的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  1. The monks lived a very ascetic life. 僧侣过着很清苦的生活。
  2. He had been trained rigorously by the monks. 他接受过修道士的严格训练。 来自《简明英汉词典》
28 scripture WZUx4     
n.经文,圣书,手稿;Scripture:(常用复数)《圣经》,《圣经》中的一段
参考例句:
  1. The scripture states that God did not want us to be alone.圣经指出上帝并不是想让我们独身一人生活。
  2. They invoked Hindu scripture to justify their position.他们援引印度教的经文为他们的立场辩护。
29 gilded UgxxG     
a.镀金的,富有的
参考例句:
  1. The golden light gilded the sea. 金色的阳光使大海如金子般闪闪发光。
  2. "Friends, they are only gilded disks of lead!" "朋友们,这只不过是些镀金的铅饼! 来自英汉文学 - 败坏赫德莱堡
30 copper HZXyU     
n.铜;铜币;铜器;adj.铜(制)的;(紫)铜色的
参考例句:
  1. The students are asked to prove the purity of copper.要求学生们检验铜的纯度。
  2. Copper is a good medium for the conduction of heat and electricity.铜是热和电的良导体。
31 willow bMFz6     
n.柳树
参考例句:
  1. The river was sparsely lined with willow trees.河边疏疏落落有几棵柳树。
  2. The willow's shadow falls on the lake.垂柳的影子倒映在湖面上。
32 inscribed 65fb4f97174c35f702447e725cb615e7     
v.写,刻( inscribe的过去式和过去分词 );内接
参考例句:
  1. His name was inscribed on the trophy. 他的名字刻在奖杯上。
  2. The names of the dead were inscribed on the wall. 死者的名字被刻在墙上。 来自《简明英汉词典》
TAG标签: palace Tibet Potala Lhasa
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