The Old Town of Lijiang
文章来源:未知 文章作者:meng 发布时间:2010-10-19 01:51 字体: [ ]  进入论坛
(单词翻译:双击或拖选)
Brief Introduction This 800-year-old habitation of the Naxi people is noteworthy(显著的) for its harmony with nature, ingenious(有独创性的) architecture and urban facilities. Lying in a broad, fertile valley in the northwest of Yunnan Province, the old town of Lijiang has been a commercial, political and cultural center of the Naxi people and other ethnic1 minorities for over eight centuries. It was designated as a town around the beginning the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368). From 1253 on, the Naxi people of Lijiang developed a unique social system, customs and culture of their own under the rule of a hereditary2 succession of chieftains(酋长,首领) of the Mu clan3. In the 18th century, the Qing Dynasty rulers implemented4(实施,执行) a policy of cultural interaction, and the Naxi people adopted the customs of the Tibetan and Han peoples. Despite several earthquakes that afflicted5 Lijiang, and because of renovation6(革新,修理) , most of the old town retains its original structure. Lijiang is surrounded by the snow-covered Yulong Mountains. "There are four seasons on one mountain," says a folk song about Yulong, "and the scenery changes every ten li (five km)." The Lijiang area is known as a treasure house of animals and plants, and a huge natural reservoir. Water flowing down from melting glaciers7 and snow high in the mountains irrigates8 the fields and provides water for the residents. Water, in fact, flows everywhere in Lijiang. Crystal-clear streams wind around all the houses and flows through the courtyards. Stone bridges span the streams. Streets paved with colored stones, including Sifang (Square) Street, are thus kept free from dust and mud in all seasons. The source of these streams is the Yuquan (Jade Spring) River, which meanders9 past the foot of Xiangshan (Elephant) Hill, north of Lijiang. In addition, there is the Baimalong (White-Horse Dragon) Pool and wells sunk around the numerous springs. The local people have made ponds along the courses of the springs. The upper ponds supply drinking water, the middle ponds are for washing vegetables, and the lower ponds are for washing clothes. The spring water that overflows10 the banks is used for washing the streets. All over the old town there are unique buildings inspired by and in harmony with Nature. Cultural relics11, both tangible12(有形的,切实的) and intangible, also abound13. In the vicinity of Lijiang there are the Shuhe Folk Residence and Baisha Folk Residence Complex, as well as cultural sites like the Five Phoenix14 Tower in the Fuguo Temple, the Great Treasure Palace and the Glazed15 Hall. Cultural Heritage Music Almost all Lijiang counties have their own ensembles16 of the traditional music, among which the Baihua and Dayan Troupe17 are the best known. The musicians of the traditional music are mostly advanced in age and experienced in both music and story telling. They have received the special attention of the government as carriers of the ancient culture of the Naxi people. The most famous musical piece is the time-honored Baisha Music Suite18 combining singing, dancing and instrumental music, also known asBieshixieli, or Beishixili. Other forms of music include the Dongjing (Taoist Scripture) Music that originated among the Han people and maintains the rhythms and tunes19 of ci and qu, lost forms of classical verse from central China. Various kinds of dance music are also popular in the Lijiang area. Murals The renowned20 murals(壁画) of Lijiang are to be found in the town, and the 15 temples in the surrounding areas. These murals, dating from the Ming and Qing periods, depict21 religious themes. A large mural in the Dabaoji Palace in Baisha Village shows a hundred deities22(神明,神灵) and figures of Han Buddhism23, Tibetan Buddhism, and Taoism. Dongba script and language The most amazing feature of Lijiang is the Dongba script, handed down for generations in the Lijiang area. Also known as the Encyclopedia24 of the Naxi Minority, the scriptures25 comprise more than 20,000 volumes recording26 the history and culture of the Naxi people, among which is Cuomo, a description of the stories, steps, costumes, stage props27, and musical instruments for several dozen Dongba classical dances. The language used by the Naxi people in compiling their scriptures is Dongba, the world's only living language that still uses hieroglyphics28. Literally29 meaning "knowledge", it is the main vehicle of the traditional culture of the Naxi People. Architecture Lijiang covers an area of 14 sq. km, and has over 4,200 households. It is also known as Dayan Town, meaning large inkstone(水绿矾) , as it is laid out in the shape of a traditional Chinese inkstone. With Sifang Street as the central thoroughfare(大路,通道) , Lijiang has houses made of stone and wood, combining the architectural features of the Han, Bai and Tibetan ethnic groups, as well as the Naxi. A typical house has two stories. A row of three main rooms on the ground floor faces south and is flanked on each side by a row of three rooms projecting at right angles and opening inward to form a front courtyard hidden from public view by a wall. The three main rooms are for the elders, and the side rooms are for the younger members of the family. The roof edges over the gables are embellished30(装饰,布置) with fish-shaped boards, known locally as "suspended fish." In the Chinese language, "fish" and "surplus" sound the same, so the carved fish are a sort of prayer for auspiciousness31(吉兆,幸运) and wealth. The doorway32 is decorated with exquisite33(精致的,细腻的) carvings34, and the courtyard is paved with pebbles35(鹅卵石) , colored tiles, or colored bricks. The middle room of the main row has six latticed(格状的) windows ornamented36 with designs of flowers, birds and animals. A spacious37 veranda38 in front of the main rooms provides a space for the family members to relax in. Almost every household has a flowerbed and a pool in the courtyard. Folk Culture Lijiang is not only the cultural center of the Naxi people, but also a meeting place for the Han, Tibetan, Bai and Naxi cultures. Ever since the 7th century (during the Tang Dynasty), the Naxi people have cultivated their unique culture through learning from other ethnic groups, including their unique pictographic script, songs, dances and operas.


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1 ethnic jiAz3     
adj.人种的,种族的,异教徒的
参考例句:
  1. This music would sound more ethnic if you played it in steel drums.如果你用钢鼓演奏,这首乐曲将更具民族特色。
  2. The plan is likely only to aggravate ethnic frictions.这一方案很有可能只会加剧种族冲突。
2 hereditary fQJzF     
adj.遗传的,遗传性的,可继承的,世袭的
参考例句:
  1. The Queen of England is a hereditary ruler.英国女王是世袭的统治者。
  2. In men,hair loss is hereditary.男性脱发属于遗传。
3 clan Dq5zi     
n.氏族,部落,宗族,家族,宗派
参考例句:
  1. She ranks as my junior in the clan.她的辈分比我小。
  2. The Chinese Christians,therefore,practically excommunicate themselves from their own clan.所以,中国的基督徒简直是被逐出了自己的家族了。
4 implemented a0211e5272f6fc75ac06e2d62558aff0     
v.实现( implement的过去式和过去分词 );执行;贯彻;使生效
参考例句:
  1. This agreement, if not implemented, is a mere scrap of paper. 这个协定如不执行只不过是一纸空文。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
  2. The economy is in danger of collapse unless far-reaching reforms are implemented. 如果不实施影响深远的改革,经济就面临崩溃的危险。 来自辞典例句
5 afflicted aaf4adfe86f9ab55b4275dae2a2e305a     
使受痛苦,折磨( afflict的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  1. About 40% of the country's population is afflicted with the disease. 全国40%左右的人口患有这种疾病。
  2. A terrible restlessness that was like to hunger afflicted Martin Eden. 一阵可怕的、跟饥饿差不多的不安情绪折磨着马丁·伊登。
6 renovation xVAxF     
n.革新,整修
参考例句:
  1. The cinema will reopen next week after the renovation.电影院修缮后,将于下星期开业。
  2. The building has undergone major renovation.这座大楼已进行大整修。
7 glaciers e815ddf266946d55974cdc5579cbd89b     
冰河,冰川( glacier的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  1. Glaciers gouged out valleys from the hills. 冰川把丘陵地带冲出一条条山谷。
  2. It has ice and snow glaciers, rainforests and beautiful mountains. 既有冰川,又有雨林和秀丽的山峰。 来自英语晨读30分(高一)
8 irrigates afadff4d24f55efe432e5dcf31658c68     
灌溉( irrigate的第三人称单数 ); 冲洗(伤口)
参考例句:
  1. The Yangtse River irrigates vast stretches of farmland along its course. 长江灌溉着两岸的大片农田。
  2. Water drafted from the well irrigates the field. 从井中抽出来的水用于灌溉田地。
9 meanders 7964da4b1e5447a140417a4f8c3af48b     
曲径( meander的名词复数 ); 迂回曲折的旅程
参考例句:
  1. The stream meanders slowly down to the sea. 这条小河弯弯曲曲缓慢地流向大海。
  2. A brook meanders through the meadow. 一条小溪从草地中蜿蜒流过。
10 overflows 657dc43e70a4e87795b8bad549d5f725     
v.溢出,淹没( overflow的第三人称单数 );充满;挤满了人;扩展出界,过度延伸
参考例句:
  1. He always fills his glass till it overflows. 他总是把杯子斟得很满。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  2. A distributary overflows its banks. 分流水溢出河岸。 来自辞典例句
11 relics UkMzSr     
[pl.]n.遗物,遗迹,遗产;遗体,尸骸
参考例句:
  1. The area is a treasure house of archaeological relics. 这个地区是古文物遗迹的宝库。
  2. Xi'an is an ancient city full of treasures and saintly relics. 西安是一个有很多宝藏和神圣的遗物的古老城市。
12 tangible 4IHzo     
adj.有形的,可触摸的,确凿的,实际的
参考例句:
  1. The policy has not yet brought any tangible benefits.这项政策还没有带来任何实质性的好处。
  2. There is no tangible proof.没有确凿的证据。
13 abound wykz4     
vi.大量存在;(in,with)充满,富于
参考例句:
  1. Oranges abound here all the year round.这里一年到头都有很多橙子。
  2. But problems abound in the management of State-owned companies.但是在国有企业的管理中仍然存在不少问题。
14 phoenix 7Njxf     
n.凤凰,长生(不死)鸟;引申为重生
参考例句:
  1. The airline rose like a phoenix from the ashes.这家航空公司又起死回生了。
  2. The phoenix worship of China is fetish worship not totem adoration.中国凤崇拜是灵物崇拜而非图腾崇拜。
15 glazed 3sLzT8     
adj.光滑的,像玻璃的;上过釉的;呆滞无神的v.装玻璃( glaze的过去式);上釉于,上光;(目光)变得呆滞无神
参考例句:
  1. eyes glazed with boredom 厌倦无神的眼睛
  2. His eyes glazed over at the sight of her. 看到她时,他的目光就变得呆滞。 来自《简明英汉词典》
16 ensembles 0e9198bc7343b463793ceb2e25beb9dd     
整体( ensemble的名词复数 ); 合奏; 乐团; 全套服装(尤指女装)
参考例句:
  1. I love to play in all types of ensembles. 我喜欢参与吹奏各种各样的合奏曲。
  2. The 5th Brigade is now taking 895 Land Warrior ensembles to Afghanistan. 第五旅现在携带895套陆地勇士装备去阿富汗。
17 troupe cmJwG     
n.剧团,戏班;杂技团;马戏团
参考例句:
  1. The art troupe is always on the move in frontier guards.文工团常年在边防部队流动。
  2. The troupe produced a new play last night.剧团昨晚上演了一部新剧。
18 suite MsMwB     
n.一套(家具);套房;随从人员
参考例句:
  1. She has a suite of rooms in the hotel.她在那家旅馆有一套房间。
  2. That is a nice suite of furniture.那套家具很不错。
19 tunes 175b0afea09410c65d28e4b62c406c21     
n.曲调,曲子( tune的名词复数 )v.调音( tune的第三人称单数 );调整;(给收音机、电视等)调谐;使协调
参考例句:
  1. a potpourri of tunes 乐曲集锦
  2. When things get a bit too much, she simply tunes out temporarily. 碰到事情太棘手时,她干脆暂时撒手不管。 来自《简明英汉词典》
20 renowned okSzVe     
adj.著名的,有名望的,声誉鹊起的
参考例句:
  1. He is one of the world's renowned writers.他是世界上知名的作家之一。
  2. She is renowned for her advocacy of human rights.她以提倡人权而闻名。
21 depict Wmdz5     
vt.描画,描绘;描写,描述
参考例句:
  1. I don't care to see plays or films that depict murders or violence.我不喜欢看描写谋杀或暴力的戏剧或电影。
  2. Children's books often depict farmyard animals as gentle,lovable creatures.儿童图书常常把农场的动物描写得温和而可爱。
22 deities f904c4643685e6b83183b1154e6a97c2     
n.神,女神( deity的名词复数 );神祗;神灵;神明
参考例句:
  1. Zeus and Aphrodite were ancient Greek deities. 宙斯和阿佛洛狄是古希腊的神。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  2. Taoist Wang hesitated occasionally about these transactions for fearof offending the deities. 道士也有过犹豫,怕这样会得罪了神。 来自汉英文学 - 现代散文
23 Buddhism 8SZy6     
n.佛教(教义)
参考例句:
  1. Buddhism was introduced into China about 67 AD.佛教是在公元67年左右传入中国的。
  2. Many people willingly converted to Buddhism.很多人情愿皈依佛教。
24 encyclopedia ZpgxD     
n.百科全书
参考例句:
  1. The encyclopedia fell to the floor with a thud.那本百科全书砰的一声掉到地上。
  2. Geoff is a walking encyclopedia.He knows about everything.杰夫是个活百科全书,他什么都懂。
25 scriptures 720536f64aa43a43453b1181a16638ad     
经文,圣典( scripture的名词复数 ); 经典
参考例句:
  1. Here the apostle Peter affirms his belief that the Scriptures are 'inspired'. 使徒彼得在此表达了他相信《圣经》是通过默感写成的。
  2. You won't find this moral precept in the scriptures. 你在《圣经》中找不到这种道德规范。
26 recording UktzJj     
n.录音,记录
参考例句:
  1. How long will the recording of the song take?录下这首歌得花多少时间?
  2. I want to play you a recording of the rehearsal.我想给你放一下彩排的录像。
27 props 50fe03ab7bf37089a7e88da9b31ffb3b     
小道具; 支柱( prop的名词复数 ); 支持者; 道具; (橄榄球中的)支柱前锋
参考例句:
  1. Rescuers used props to stop the roof of the tunnel collapsing. 救援人员用支柱防止隧道顶塌陷。
  2. The government props up the prices of farm products to support farmers' incomes. 政府保持农产品价格不变以保障农民们的收入。
28 hieroglyphics 875efb138c1099851d6647d532c0036f     
n.pl.象形文字
参考例句:
  1. Hieroglyphics are carved into the walls of the temple. 寺庙的墙壁上刻着象形文字。
  2. His writing is so bad it just looks like hieroglyphics to me. 他写的糟透了,对我来说就像天书一样。
29 literally 28Wzv     
adv.照字面意义,逐字地;确实
参考例句:
  1. He translated the passage literally.他逐字逐句地翻译这段文字。
  2. Sometimes she would not sit down till she was literally faint.有时候,她不走到真正要昏厥了,决不肯坐下来。
30 embellished b284f4aedffe7939154f339dba2d2073     
v.美化( embellish的过去式和过去分词 );装饰;修饰;润色
参考例句:
  1. The door of the old church was embellished with decorations. 老教堂的门是用雕饰美化的。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  2. The stern was embellished with carvings in red and blue. 船尾饰有红色和蓝色的雕刻图案。 来自辞典例句
31 auspiciousness d7c68f1d04a3147e09c70d041116d374     
吉兆;幸运
参考例句:
  1. The folks take the phoenix as the symbol of auspiciousness and happiness. 民间即以次象征吉祥和喜庆来歌颂幸福的生活。 来自互联网
  2. Peafowl are precious birds that people love as a symbol of auspiciousness. 孔雀作为吉祥之鸟深受人们喜爱,是举世驰名的珍禽。 来自互联网
32 doorway 2s0xK     
n.门口,(喻)入门;门路,途径
参考例句:
  1. They huddled in the shop doorway to shelter from the rain.他们挤在商店门口躲雨。
  2. Mary suddenly appeared in the doorway.玛丽突然出现在门口。
33 exquisite zhez1     
adj.精美的;敏锐的;剧烈的,感觉强烈的
参考例句:
  1. I was admiring the exquisite workmanship in the mosaic.我当时正在欣赏镶嵌画的精致做工。
  2. I still remember the exquisite pleasure I experienced in Bali.我依然记得在巴厘岛所经历的那种剧烈的快感。
34 carvings 3ccde9120da2aaa238c9785046cb8f86     
n.雕刻( carving的名词复数 );雕刻术;雕刻品;雕刻物
参考例句:
  1. The desk was ornamented with many carvings. 这桌子装饰有很多雕刻物。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  2. Shell carvings are a specialty of the town. 贝雕是该城的特产。 来自《简明英汉词典》
35 pebbles e4aa8eab2296e27a327354cbb0b2c5d2     
[复数]鹅卵石; 沙砾; 卵石,小圆石( pebble的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  1. The pebbles of the drive crunched under his feet. 汽车道上的小石子在他脚底下喀嚓作响。
  2. Line the pots with pebbles to ensure good drainage. 在罐子里铺一层鹅卵石,以确保排水良好。
36 ornamented af417c68be20f209790a9366e9da8dbb     
adj.花式字体的v.装饰,点缀,美化( ornament的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  1. The desk was ornamented with many carvings. 这桌子装饰有很多雕刻物。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  2. She ornamented her dress with lace. 她用花边装饰衣服。 来自《简明英汉词典》
37 spacious YwQwW     
adj.广阔的,宽敞的
参考例句:
  1. Our yard is spacious enough for a swimming pool.我们的院子很宽敞,足够建一座游泳池。
  2. The room is bright and spacious.这房间很豁亮。
38 veranda XfczWG     
n.走廊;阳台
参考例句:
  1. She sat in the shade on the veranda.她坐在阳台上的遮荫处。
  2. They were strolling up and down the veranda.他们在走廊上来回徜徉。
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