The Ancient City of Pingyao
文章来源:未知 文章作者:meng 发布时间:2010-10-26 01:36 字体: [ ]  进入论坛
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Brief Introduction This is the best-preserved historic townscape(都市景观) in the regions populated by the Han ethnic1 group. The Old Town of Pingyao lies in Pingyao County in central Shanxi Province. It was constructed during the reign2 of King Xuan of the Western Zhou Dynasty (C.827-782B.C.) and has been a county seat ever since the establishment of the prefecture-and-county system in ancient China. Today, Pingyao looks much the same as it did during the Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911) dynasties. Pingyao is known mainly for three historical treasures: the ancient brick city wall, the Zhenguo Temple, and the Shuanglin Temple. The city wall of Pingyao was originally built using rammed3 earth(素土夯实) , and was rebuilt with bricks in 1370 during the reign of Emperor Hong Wu of the Ming Dynasty. The wall extends for six km, and testifies to the profound influence of Confucianism(儒家学说) in this region, as the 3,000 embrasures(炮眼) on the wall are said to represent the number of disciples4(门徒) of Confucius, and the 72 small watchtowers represent his 72 top disciples. In the later period of the Qing Dynasty, the Kuixing Pavilion was built on the southeast section of the wall, and became a symbol of the flourishing culture of the ancient city. Pingyao occupies an important place in the financial history of modern China. It was the location of the Shanxi Commerce and Rishengchang Piaohao, a kind of banking5 firm dealing6 mainly in the transfer of money. The now-defunct firm is considered to have been the predecessor7 of modern banks in China. During the Ming and Qing dynasties, along with the development of the economy and commerce, several large commercial firms in Shanxi Province opened branches outside the province, thus establishing a trans-regional business network. The circulation of commodities and the transfer of money gave rise to the piaohao. In 1824, the Rishengchang Piaohao, the first banking firm in China, was established on what had been the site of the Xiyucheng Pigment8 Shop on Xidajie Street. Three years later, Rishengchang opened branches in Shandong, Henan, Liaoning, and Jiangsu provinces. In the 1840s, it expanded its operations to Japan, Singapore, and Russia. Following the example of Rishengchang, more than 20 piaohaos opened one after another in Pingyao, turning the town into the financial center of China. Cultural Heritage The original purpose of King Xuan for building Pingyao was to withstand the attacks of the nomads9 of the north. Afterwards, Pingyao was developed into a multi-functional city, the starting place of commercial business in Shanxi and the birthplace of China's first rudimentary(基本的,初步的) form of a modern bank. Peiyao also retains most of its ancient charm in buildings like the Temple of Confucius, the Qingxu Temple, and a great number of residential10 buildings. The Old Town of Pingyao was constructed according to the traditional planning and building style of the Han ethnic group, and was designed according to the functions of its different parts. Four large streets, eight smaller ones, and 72 lanes make a neat grid11. Symmetrically arranged along an axis12, the private houses were constructed either in the style of courtyard houses or in the style of manmade-cave houses, all with local features. Today, Pingyao still has 3,797 courtyard houses, 400 of them especially well preserved. In addition, richly decorated temples and shops are scattered13 all over the town. These old buildings bring back a scene of the flourishing town of Pingyao as one of the most prosperous commercial centers during the Ming and Qing periods. The Zhenguo Temple, located in the northeast part of the city, was built 1,000 years ago, and its Hall of Ten Thousand Buddhas14 (Wan-fo Hall) is the third-oldest existing wooden building in China. The painted statues from the Five Dynasties period (907-960) inside the Wanfo Hall are recognized as precious sculptures. The Shuanglin Temple, with its ten halls, is located in the southwest part of the town. It was rebuilt in 571, during the Northern Qi Dynasty (550-577). As the temple houses more than 2,000 painted clay statues from the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) through the Ming Dynasty, it is known as the Treasure House of Painted Sculptures. Other treasures in Pingyao include the Hall of Great Achievements (Da-cheng-dian) in the Temple of Confucius (Wen-miao), reconstructed in 1163, and the Qingxu Temple, originally constructed in 657. Notabilities The time-honored city of Pingyao is also notable for producing famous figures in Chinese history: Sun Sheng, an upright historian in defiance15 of threats of execution in the 19th century; Sun Kang, a diligent16 scholar of ancient times famed for reading in the reflected light of the snow; Hou Wailu, a top contemporary expert in history; Wang Yao, a top Chinese literature specialist; the linguist17(语言学家) Hou Jingyi and many top-notch professionals in arts. Notables of Pingyao also include: Sun Chu (218-293), a scholar of the Western Jin Dynasty, famed for his poems. He was appointed to several official positions, including that of prefect of Fengyi. The most quoted work by Sun Chu is Valediction18 at the Departure of Several Generals. Sun Chuo (314-371), one of the representative metaphysical poets of the Eastern Jin Dynasty. Erudite and reclusive, he lived a cloistered19 life in Zhejiang for ten years before being invited to work as minister in the government. His most famous works include "Ode to Seclusion20" and "Ode to Mt. Tiantai". Legends and Stories The parapet(栏杆,扶手) , or the Maiden's Wall, is named after a little girl who saved a workman's life at the cost of her own. Legend has it that the girl used to sit on the city wall every day watching her grandpa help to build the wall. One day, when she saw a fatigued21(疲乏的) worker swaggering(昂首阔步) by the edge of the wall, she came up to push him back to the safe place but fell off herself. In grief, the workers built up a smaller parapet on the wall to commemorate22 her.


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1 ethnic jiAz3     
adj.人种的,种族的,异教徒的
参考例句:
  1. This music would sound more ethnic if you played it in steel drums.如果你用钢鼓演奏,这首乐曲将更具民族特色。
  2. The plan is likely only to aggravate ethnic frictions.这一方案很有可能只会加剧种族冲突。
2 reign pBbzx     
n.统治时期,统治,支配,盛行;v.占优势
参考例句:
  1. The reign of Queen Elizabeth lapped over into the seventeenth century.伊丽莎白王朝延至17世纪。
  2. The reign of Zhu Yuanzhang lasted about 31 years.朱元璋统治了大约三十一年。
3 rammed 99b2b7e6fc02f63b92d2b50ea750a532     
v.夯实(土等)( ram的过去式和过去分词 );猛撞;猛压;反复灌输
参考例句:
  1. Two passengers were injured when their taxi was rammed from behind by a bus. 公共汽车从后面撞来,出租车上的两位乘客受了伤。
  2. I rammed down the earth around the newly-planted tree. 我将新栽的树周围的土捣硬。 来自《简明英汉词典》
4 disciples e24b5e52634d7118146b7b4e56748cac     
n.信徒( disciple的名词复数 );门徒;耶稣的信徒;(尤指)耶稣十二门徒之一
参考例句:
  1. Judas was one of the twelve disciples of Jesus. 犹大是耶稣十二门徒之一。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  2. "The names of the first two disciples were --" “最初的两个门徒的名字是——” 来自英汉文学 - 汤姆历险
5 banking aySz20     
n.银行业,银行学,金融业
参考例句:
  1. John is launching his son on a career in banking.约翰打算让儿子在银行界谋一个新职位。
  2. He possesses an extensive knowledge of banking.他具有广博的银行业务知识。
6 dealing NvjzWP     
n.经商方法,待人态度
参考例句:
  1. This store has an excellent reputation for fair dealing.该商店因买卖公道而享有极高的声誉。
  2. His fair dealing earned our confidence.他的诚实的行为获得我们的信任。
7 predecessor qP9x0     
n.前辈,前任
参考例句:
  1. It will share the fate of its predecessor.它将遭受与前者同样的命运。
  2. The new ambassador is more mature than his predecessor.新大使比他的前任更成熟一些。
8 pigment gi0yg     
n.天然色素,干粉颜料
参考例句:
  1. The Romans used natural pigments on their fabrics and walls.古罗马人在织物和墙壁上使用天然颜料。
  2. Who thought he might know what the skin pigment phenomenon meant.他自认为可能知道皮肤色素出现这种现象到底是怎么回事。
9 nomads 768a0f027c2142bf3f626e9422a6ffe9     
n.游牧部落的一员( nomad的名词复数 );流浪者;游牧生活;流浪生活
参考例句:
  1. For ten years she dwelled among the nomads of North America. 她在北美游牧民中生活了十年。
  2. Nomads have inhabited this region for thousands of years. 游牧民族在这地区居住已有数千年了。 来自《简明英汉词典》
10 residential kkrzY3     
adj.提供住宿的;居住的;住宅的
参考例句:
  1. The mayor inspected the residential section of the city.市长视察了该市的住宅区。
  2. The residential blocks were integrated with the rest of the college.住宿区与学院其他部分结合在了一起。
11 grid 5rPzpK     
n.高压输电线路网;地图坐标方格;格栅
参考例句:
  1. In this application,the carrier is used to encapsulate the grid.在这种情况下,要用载体把格栅密封起来。
  2. Modern gauges consist of metal foil in the form of a grid.现代应变仪则由网格形式的金属片组成。
12 axis sdXyz     
n.轴,轴线,中心线;坐标轴,基准线
参考例句:
  1. The earth's axis is the line between the North and South Poles.地轴是南北极之间的线。
  2. The axis of a circle is its diameter.圆的轴线是其直径。
13 scattered 7jgzKF     
adj.分散的,稀疏的;散步的;疏疏落落的
参考例句:
  1. Gathering up his scattered papers,he pushed them into his case.他把散乱的文件收拾起来,塞进文件夹里。
14 Buddhas 355b2d5b267add69347643fe9fd61545     
n.佛,佛陀,佛像( Buddha的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  1. She called on spirits and Buddhas and made innumerable vows, all to no avail. 她把一切的神佛都喊到了,并且许下多少誓愿,都没有用。 来自汉英文学 - 骆驼祥子
  2. Tibetans identification with the political role of Living Buddhas is declining. 藏新政权的政治舞台中活佛的政治角色处于边缘。 来自互联网
15 defiance RmSzx     
n.挑战,挑衅,蔑视,违抗
参考例句:
  1. He climbed the ladder in defiance of the warning.他无视警告爬上了那架梯子。
  2. He slammed the door in a spirit of defiance.他以挑衅性的态度把门砰地一下关上。
16 diligent al6ze     
adj.勤勉的,勤奋的
参考例句:
  1. He is the more diligent of the two boys.他是这两个男孩中较用功的一个。
  2. She is diligent and keeps herself busy all the time.她真勤快,一会儿也不闲着。
17 linguist K02xo     
n.语言学家;精通数种外国语言者
参考例句:
  1. I used to be a linguist till I become a writer.过去我是个语言学家,后来成了作家。
  2. Professor Cui has a high reputation as a linguist.崔教授作为语言学家名声很高。
18 valediction EiJwo     
n.告别演说,告别词
参考例句:
  1. He gave a touching valediction at graduation.他在毕业典礼上发表了动人的告别辞。
  2. I came here just for a valediction.我来仅仅是向你告别。
19 cloistered 4f1490b85c2b43f5160b7807f7d48ce9     
adj.隐居的,躲开尘世纷争的v.隐退,使与世隔绝( cloister的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  1. the cloistered world of the university 与世隔绝的大学
  2. She cloistered herself in the office. 她呆在办公室里好像与世隔绝一样。 来自《简明英汉词典》
20 seclusion 5DIzE     
n.隐遁,隔离
参考例句:
  1. She liked to sunbathe in the seclusion of her own garden.她喜欢在自己僻静的花园里晒日光浴。
  2. I live very much in seclusion these days.这些天我过着几乎与世隔绝的生活。
21 fatigued fatigued     
adj. 疲乏的
参考例句:
  1. The exercises fatigued her. 操练使她感到很疲乏。
  2. The President smiled, with fatigued tolerance for a minor person's naivety. 总统笑了笑,疲惫地表现出对一个下级人员的天真想法的宽容。
22 commemorate xbEyN     
vt.纪念,庆祝
参考例句:
  1. This building was built to commemorate the Fire of London.这栋大楼是为纪念“伦敦大火”而兴建的。
  2. We commemorate the founding of our nation with a public holiday.我们放假一日以庆祝国庆。
TAG标签: temple town Pingyao
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