GMAT考试阅读资料(七)c
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(单词翻译:双击或拖选)
Passage 39
  Historians sometimes forget that history is conunu-ally being made and experienced before it is studied,  interpreted, and read. These latter activities have their own history, of course, which may impinge in unex-(5) pected ways on public events. It is difficult to predict when “new pasts” will overturn established historical  interpretations2 and change the course of history.
  In the fall of 1954, for example, C. Vann Woodward delivered a lecture series at the University of Virginia(10) which challenged the prevailling dogma concerning the history, continuity, and uniformity of racial segregation3 in the South. He argued that the Jim Crow laws of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries not only  codified4 traditional practice but also were a determined(15) effort to erase5 the considerable progress made by Black   people during and after Reconstruction6 in the 1870‘s.  This revisionist view of Jim Crow legislation grew in  Part from the research that Woodward had done for the NAACP legal campaign during its preparation for(20) Brown v. Board of Education. The Supreme7 Court had issued its ruling in this epochal desegregation case a few months before Woodward’s lectures.
  The lectures were soon published as a book. The Strange Career of Jim Crow. Ten years later, in a(25) preface to the second revised edition. Woodward confessed with ironic8 modesty9 that the first edition “had begun to suffer under some of the handicaps that might be expected in a history of the American Revolu-tion published in 1776.” That was a bit like hearing(30)Thomas Paine apologize for the timing10 of his pamphlet Common Sense,which had a comparable impact.
  Although Common Sense also had a mass readership.Paine had intended to reach and inspire: he was not a  historian, and thus not concerned with accuracy or the(35)dangers of historical anachronism. Yet,like Paine,  Woodward had an unerring sense of the revolutionary moment, and of how historical evidence could under-mine the mythological11 tradition that was crushing the dreams of new social possibilities. Martin Luther King,(40) Jr…… testified to the profound effect of The Strange Career of Jim Crow on the civil rights movement by praising the book and quoting it frequently.
  1. The “new pasts” mentioned in line 6 can best be described as the
   (A) occurrence of events extremely similar to past events
   (B) history of the activities of studying, interpreting, and reading new historical writing
   (C) change in people‘s understanding of the past due to more recent historical writing
   (D) overturning of established historical interpretations by politically motivated politicians
   (E) difficulty of predicting when a given historical interpretation1 will be overturned
  2. It can be inferred from the passage that the “prevailling dogma” (line 10) held that
   (A) Jim Crow laws were passed to give legal status to well-established discriminatory practices in the   South
   (B) Jim Crow laws were passed to establish order and uniformity in the discriminatory practices of   different southern states.
   (C) Jim Crow laws were passed to erase the social gains that Black people had achieved since Reconstruction
   (D) the continuity of racial segregation in the South was disrupted by passage of Jim Crow laws
   (E) the Jim Crow laws of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were passed to reverse the effect   of earlier Jim Crow laws
  3. Which of the following is the best example of writing that is likely to be subject to the kinds of “handicaps” referred to in line 27?
   (A) A history of an auto12 manufacturing plant written by an employee during an autobuying boom
   (B) A critique of a statewide school-desegregation plan written by an elementary school teacher in that state
   (C) A newspaper article assessing the historical importance of a United States President written shortly after the President has taken office
   (D) A scientific paper describing the benefits of a certain surgical13 technique written by the surgeon who developed the technique
   (E) Diary entries narrating14 the events of a battle written by a soldier who participated in the battle
  4. The passage suggests that C. Vann Woodward and Thomas Paine were similar in all of the following ways EXCEPT:
   (A) Both had works published in the midst of important historical events.
   (B) Both wrote works that enjoyed widespread popularity.
   (C) Both exhibited an understanding of the relevance15 of historical evidence to contemporary issues.
   (D) The works of both had a significant effect on events following their publication.
   (E) Both were able to set aside worries about historical anachronism in order to reach and inspire.
   5. The attitude of the author of the passage toward the work of C. Vann Woodward is best described as one of
   (A) respectful regard
   (B) qualified16 approbation17
   (C) implied skepticism
   (D) pointed18 criticism
   (E) fervent19 advocacy
  6. Which of the following best describes the new idea expressed by C. Vann Woodward in his University of Virginia lectures in 1954?
   (A) Southern racial segregation was continuous and uniform.
   (B) Black people made considerable progress only after Reconstruction.
   (C) Jim Crow legislation was conventional in nature.
   (D) Jim Crow laws did not go as far in codifying20 traditional practice as they might have.
   (E) Jim Crow laws did much more than merely reinforce a tradition of segregation.


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1 interpretation P5jxQ     
n.解释,说明,描述;艺术处理
参考例句:
  1. His statement admits of one interpretation only.他的话只有一种解释。
  2. Analysis and interpretation is a very personal thing.分析与说明是个很主观的事情。
2 interpretations a61815f6fe8955c9d235d4082e30896b     
n.解释( interpretation的名词复数 );表演;演绎;理解
参考例句:
  1. This passage is open to a variety of interpretations. 这篇文章可以有各种不同的解释。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  2. The involved and abstruse passage makes several interpretations possible. 这段艰涩的文字可以作出好几种解释。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
3 segregation SESys     
n.隔离,种族隔离
参考例句:
  1. Many school boards found segregation a hot potato in the early 1960s.在60年代初,许多学校部门都觉得按水平分班是一个棘手的问题。
  2. They were tired to death of segregation and of being kicked around.他们十分厌恶种族隔离和总是被人踢来踢去。
4 codified dd3cd252bc567c020a4b80e850158714     
v.把(法律)编成法典( codify的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  1. In the meantime, however, Kennecott had been codified elsewhere in the Act. 然而,“肯尼考特”一案已被编人法案。 来自英汉非文学 - 环境法 - 环境法
  2. Congress has since codified this holding. 从那时以来,国会编纂整理了最高法院的这一裁定。 来自英汉非文学 - 行政法
5 erase woMxN     
v.擦掉;消除某事物的痕迹
参考例句:
  1. He tried to erase the idea from his mind.他试图从头脑中抹掉这个想法。
  2. Please erase my name from the list.请把我的名字从名单上擦去。
6 reconstruction 3U6xb     
n.重建,再现,复原
参考例句:
  1. The country faces a huge task of national reconstruction following the war.战后,该国面临着重建家园的艰巨任务。
  2. In the period of reconstruction,technique decides everything.在重建时期,技术决定一切。
7 supreme PHqzc     
adj.极度的,最重要的;至高的,最高的
参考例句:
  1. It was the supreme moment in his life.那是他一生中最重要的时刻。
  2. He handed up the indictment to the supreme court.他把起诉书送交最高法院。
8 ironic 1atzm     
adj.讽刺的,有讽刺意味的,出乎意料的
参考例句:
  1. That is a summary and ironic end.那是一个具有概括性和讽刺意味的结局。
  2. People used to call me Mr Popularity at high school,but they were being ironic.人们中学时常把我称作“万人迷先生”,但他们是在挖苦我。
9 modesty REmxo     
n.谦逊,虚心,端庄,稳重,羞怯,朴素
参考例句:
  1. Industry and modesty are the chief factors of his success.勤奋和谦虚是他成功的主要因素。
  2. As conceit makes one lag behind,so modesty helps one make progress.骄傲使人落后,谦虚使人进步。
10 timing rgUzGC     
n.时间安排,时间选择
参考例句:
  1. The timing of the meeting is not convenient.会议的时间安排不合适。
  2. The timing of our statement is very opportune.我们发表声明选择的时机很恰当。
11 mythological BFaxL     
adj.神话的
参考例句:
  1. He is remembered for his historical and mythological works. 他以其带有历史感和神话色彩的作品而著称。
  2. But even so, the cumulative process had for most Americans a deep, almost mythological significance. 不过即使如此,移民渐增的过程,对于大部分美国人,还是意味深长的,几乎有不可思议的影响。
12 auto ZOnyW     
n.(=automobile)(口语)汽车
参考例句:
  1. Don't park your auto here.别把你的汽车停在这儿。
  2. The auto industry has brought many people to Detroit.汽车工业把许多人吸引到了底特律。
13 surgical 0hXzV3     
adj.外科的,外科医生的,手术上的
参考例句:
  1. He performs the surgical operations at the Red Cross Hospital.他在红十字会医院做外科手术。
  2. All surgical instruments must be sterilised before use.所有的外科手术器械在使用之前,必须消毒。
14 narrating 2190dd15ba2a6eb491491ffd99c809ed     
v.故事( narrate的现在分词 )
参考例句:
  1. She entertained them by narrating her adventures in Africa. 她讲述她在非洲的历险来使他们开心。
  2. [Mike Narrating] Worm and I fall into our old rhythm like Clyde Frazier and Pearl Monroe. [迈克叙述] 虫子和我配合得象以前一样默契我们两好象是克莱德。弗瑞泽和佩尔。门罗。 来自电影对白
15 relevance gVAxg     
n.中肯,适当,关联,相关性
参考例句:
  1. Politicians' private lives have no relevance to their public roles.政治家的私生活与他们的公众角色不相关。
  2. Her ideas have lost all relevance to the modern world.她的想法与现代社会完全脱节。
16 qualified DCPyj     
adj.合格的,有资格的,胜任的,有限制的
参考例句:
  1. He is qualified as a complete man of letters.他有资格当真正的文学家。
  2. We must note that we still lack qualified specialists.我们必须看到我们还缺乏有资质的专家。
17 approbation INMyt     
n.称赞;认可
参考例句:
  1. He tasted the wine of audience approbation.他尝到了像酒般令人陶醉的听众赞许滋味。
  2. The result has not met universal approbation.该结果尚未获得普遍认同。
18 pointed Il8zB4     
adj.尖的,直截了当的
参考例句:
  1. He gave me a very sharp pointed pencil.他给我一支削得非常尖的铅笔。
  2. She wished to show Mrs.John Dashwood by this pointed invitation to her brother.她想通过对达茨伍德夫人提出直截了当的邀请向她的哥哥表示出来。
19 fervent SlByg     
adj.热的,热烈的,热情的
参考例句:
  1. It was a debate which aroused fervent ethical arguments.那是一场引发强烈的伦理道德争论的辩论。
  2. Austria was among the most fervent supporters of adolf hitler.奥地利是阿道夫希特勒最狂热的支持者之一。
20 codifying 465e67ba5d552cf9e3808c77f46942d0     
v.把(法律)编成法典( codify的现在分词 )
参考例句:
  1. For this reason, the disputations of codifying administrative procedures in domain are becoming more and more. 因此,有关行政程序法典化的各种争论在理论界也愈来愈多。 来自互联网
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