2006年12月23日大学英语四级考试最新预测卷(二)
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大学英语4级考试 College English Model Test Three —Band Four— Part ⅠWriting(30 minutes) Directions: For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a letter to your American friend Lawrence, to introduce Spring Festival in China and invite him to join you to spend this Spring Festival. Suppose you are Yuan Chao. You should write at least 120 words following the suggestions given below in Chinese: 1. 表达你对Lawrence的想念之情; 2. 介绍中国的春节; 3. 邀请Lawrence和你们一起过春节。 提示:在实考试卷中,该试题在答题卡1上。 A Letter to Lawrence September 23, 2005 Dear Lawrence,                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Yours, Yuan Chao   Part ⅡReading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning)(15 minutes) Directions:In this part,you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7,mark Y (for YES)if the statement agrees with the information given in the passage; N (for NO)if the statement contradicts the information given in the passage; NG (for NOT GIVEN)if the information is not given in the passage. For questions 8-10,complete the sentences with information given in the passage.   Computer  Crime A computer crime is generally defined as one that involves the use of computers and software for illegal purposes. This doesn’t mean that all the crimes are new types of crime. On the contrary, many of these crimes, such as embezzlement1 of funds, the alteration2 of records, theft, vandalism, sabotage3, and terrorism, can be committed without a computer. But with a computer, these offenses4 can be carried out more quickly and with less chance that the person responsible for the crime will be discovered. Computer crimes are on the rise and have been for the last twelve years. Just how much these computer crimes cost the American public is in dispute, but estimates range from ?3 billion to ?5 billion annually5. Even the FBI, which attempts to keep track of the growth or decline of all kinds of crimes, is unable to say precisely6 how large a loss is involved; however, it estimates that the average take from a company hit by computer crime is ?600,000. A number of reasons are given for the increase in computer crime: (A)  more computers in use and, thus, more people who are familiar with basic computer operation; (B)  more computers tied together in satellite and other datatransmission networks; and (C)  the easy access of microcomputers8 to huge mainframe data bases.   The  Criminal Movies and newspaper stories might lead us to believe that most computer crimes are committed by teenage “hackers”—brilliant and basically good children who let their imagination and technical genius get them into trouble. But a realistic look at the crimes reveals that the offender9 is likely to be an employee of the firm against which the crime has been committed, i.e., an “insider”. Difficulty  of  Detection   and   Prevention Given the kind of person who commits a computer crime and the environment in which the crime occurs, it is often difficult to detect who the criminal is. First of all, the crime may be so complex that months or years go by before anyone discovers it. Second, once the crime has been revealed, it is not easy to find a clear trail of evidence that leads back to the guilty party. After all, looking for “weapons” or fingerprints10 does not occur as it might in the investigation11 of more conventional crimes. Third, there are usually no witnesses to the computer crime, even though it may be taking place in a room filled with people. Who is to say if the person at the next terminal, calmly keying in data, is doing the company’s work or committing a criminal act? Fourth, not enough people in management and law enforcement know enough about computer technology to prevent the crimes. Authorities have to be familiar with the computer’s capabilities12 within a given situation to guard against its misuses14. In some large cities, such as Los Angeles, police departments have set up specially15 trained computer crime units. But even when an offender is caught, the investigators16, attorneys (律师), judges, or juries may find the alleged17 crime too complicated and perplexing to handle. More attorneys are specializing in computer law and studying the computer’s potential for misuse13. After a computer crime has been discovered, many companies do not report it or prosecute18 (起诉) the person responsible. A company may not announce the crime out of fear that the pubic will find out the weaknesses of its computer system and lose confidence in its organization. Banks, credit card companies, and investment firms are especially sensitive about revealing their vulnerabilities (脆弱性) because they rely heavily on customer trust. To avoid public attention, cautious companies will often settle cases of computer tampering19 out of court. And if cases do go to trial and the offenders20 are convicted, they may be punished only by a fine or light sentence because the judge or jury isn’t fully21 trained to understand the nature and seriousness of the crime. Not all companies are timid in apprehending22 computer criminals. For example, Connecticut General Life Insurance Company decided23 it had to get tough on violators. So when the company discovered that one of its computer technicians had embezzled24 ?200,000 by entering false benefit claims, it presented it findings to the state’s attorney and aided in the prosecution25 of the technician. The technician was found guilty and sentenced to prison, not just for the computer misuse, but also for grand theft and insurance fraud. Connecticut General now has a policy of reporting all incidents of theft or fraud, no matter how small. 提示:在实考试卷中,8-10题在答题卡1上。 1. The FBI knows exactly how large a loss is involved in computer crimes. 2. It has become easy for microcomputer7 owners to use huge mainframe data bases. 3. It is implied in the Paragraph 3 that most computer criminals are the employees of the concerned companies. 4. Many companies don?t report computer crimes because law procedures against computer crimes usually cost a lot of money. 5. When computer crime takes place in a room filled with people, there are usually many witnesses to the crime. 6. The passage is mainly about the increase of computer crimes in America and the difficulties in combating computer crimes. 7. Computer crimes are on the rise because more cheap microcomputers are available. 8. According to the passage, computer crimes has been on the rise for the last            years. 9. Connecticut  General Life Insurance company is cited as            of companies that took serious measures to fight against computer crimes. 10. Banks, credit card companies, and investment firms are especially sensitive about revealing their vulnerabilities because they place too much reliance on            .   Part Ⅲ Listening Comprehension35 minutes Section A Directions:In this section, you will hear 8 short conversations and 2 long conversations.At the end of each conversation,one or more questions will be asked about what was said.Both the conversation and the questions will be spoken only once.After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A),B),C) and D),and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. 11? A)  She won?t let her friend borrow the car.B)  She will shop for a car. C)  She has a good car.D)  She will lend her car to her friend. 12?A)  She hasn’t heard from the professor in a week. B)  The class has extra time to complete the assignment. C)  She only just found out about the economics paper. D)  She won’t see the professor until next week. 13?A)  Her backhand is almost perfect. B)  The time the man spent practicing has helped him. C)  The man’s mother wanted him to practice. D)  Her mother is a good tennis coach. 14?A)  Board the train.B)  Send a fax. C)  Change his departure time.D)  Have breakfast. 15?A)  He turned a corner so fast.B)  He ran a red light. C)  He went through a stop sign.D)  He was speeding. 16?A)  Each person will be allowed to buy only one ticket. B)  The tickets will sell out quickly. C)  The rock concert will probably be rescheduled. D)  There will be extra tickets. 17?A)  They didn’t get wet.B)  They’re late for the concert. C)  They prefer to dress casually26.D)  They’re really looking forward to the concert. 18?A)  She was working on a train schedule.B)  She didn’t get home until after midnight. C)  She was busy with her guests all evening.D)  She left too late to catch the train. Question 19 to 22 are based on the conversation you have just heard. 19. A) How different kinds of pepper are produced.B) Why white pepper is superior to black pepper. C) How the pepper plant is grown.D) How various peppers are used in cooking. 20. A) He read about it in a cookbook.B) He grows his own herbs and spices. C) He heard about it from a friend.D) He studied it in cooking school. 21. A) It’s preserved in liquid.B) The skin is removed. C) It’s dried in the sun.D) It’s freezedried. 22. A) It’s more pure than other types of pepper.B) It helps maintain the color of certain dishes. C) It has a fruity flavor.D) It’s easier to grow. Question 23 to 25 are based on the conversation you have just heard. 23. A) A story in prose.B) A poem that rhymes. C) A translation of a short literary work.D) A journal about the process of writing. 24. A) The class has been assigned to read it. B) He was able to read it in French. C) He isn’t sure it’s available in English. D) He thinks it’s an example of what the professor wants. 25. A) It’s pronounced differently in French than it is in English. B) To write without using it is difficult both in English and in French. C) Every word in the French author’s book contained it. D) It’s commonly used in English to make poetry rhyme. Section B Directions:In this section,you will hear 3 short passages.At the end of each passage,you will hear some questions.Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once.After you hear a question,you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A),B),C) and D) .Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. Passage One Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you have just heard. 26?A)  Automobile27 safety.B)  Increasing fuel efficiency. C)  California’s pollution laws.D)  Electricpowered cars. 27?A)  They are cheaper.B)  They do not pollute as much. C)  They are simpler to drive.D)  They are faster. 28?A)  It is not comfortable. B)  It is difficult to steer28. C)  It cannot go long distance  without recharging. D)  Its engine easily overheats. Passage Two Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard. 29?A)  Its publication was banned by the British government. B)  It was the first weekly newspaper. C)  It caused a prison revolt. D)  It was the first magazine ever published. 30?A)  He wrote articles critical of the Church of England. B)  He refused to stop publishing The Review. C)  He refused to pay publishing taxes. D)  He refused to join the Church of England. 31?A)  It was not really a magazine.B)  It featured a variety of articles and stories. C)  It was praised by readers of poetry.D)  It was unpopular with political analysis. Passage Three Questions 32 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard. 32.  A)  Miss Straus      B)  Mabel Bird C)  Isidor Straus      D)  Mabel Bird’s servant 33.  A)  To get into the lifeboat B)  To stay with her husband C)  To be close to her husband D)  To stand arm in arm on the deck with her husband 34. A)  Her best friendB)  Her heart’s true companion C)  Always a comfort to her soul.D)  All of the above 35. A)  She wanted to put the children first into the lifeboat B)  She could not bear to leave her husband C)  She helped her servant to get into the boat D)  She was too old to put her foot on the edge of the boat. Section C Directions:In this section,you will hear a passage three times.When the passage is read for the first time,you should listen carefully for its general idea.When the passage is read for the second time,you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 36 to 43 with the exact words you have just heard.For blanks numbered from 44 to 46 you are required to fill in the missing information.For these blanks,you can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in you own words.Finally, when the passage is read for the third time,you should check what you have written. 提示:在实考试卷中,该试题在答题卡2上。 One of the best ways to celebrate Mother’s Day is to give your mom the day off. Let her take it easy and (36)          while the rest of the family does the work. My families begin Mother’s Day with (37)          in bed. Usually dad and the kids will let mom sleep late as they go into the (38)          and prepare her (39)         meal. A Mother’s Day breakfast can (40)          of anything your mom likes. After the food is cooked (41)          everything nicely on a (42)          . Don’t forget the (43)          with a single flower. Wite spring here, the children can pick a tulip(郁金香)or daffodil(黄水仙花) from the garden outside. When everything is ready (44)          . Cards and small presents from the children can be placed on the tray before it is presented to mom in bed. Many families make a special Mother’s Day dinner or (45)          . It is a good day to let your mom have a good rest and let her see what a wonderful family she has. (46)          .These telegrams can be sent from any post office in this country.   Part ⅣReading ComprehensionReading in Depth)(25 minutes Section A Directions:In this section,there is a passage with ten blanks.You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage.Read the passage through carefully before making your choices.Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter.Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once. Questions 47 to 56 are based on the following passage. What is it about Americans and food? We love to eat, but we feel 47          about it afterward29. We say we want only the best, but we strangely enjoy junk food. We’re48          with health and weight loss but face an unprecedented30 epidemic31 of obesity(肥胖). Perhaps the49          to this ambivalence(矛盾情结) lies in our history. The first Europeans came to this continent searching for new spices but went in vain. The first cash crop(经济作物) wasn’t eaten but smoked. Then there was Prohibition32, intended to prohibit drinking but actually encouraging more50          ways of doing it. The immigrant experience, too, has been one of inharmony. Do as Romans do means eating what “real Americans” eat, but our nation’s food has come to be 51          by imports—pizza, say, or hot dogs. And some of the country’s most treasured cooking comes from people who arrived here in shackles33. Perhaps it should come as no surprise then that food has been a medium for the nation’s defining struggles, whether at the Boston Tea Party or the sit?ins at southern lunch counters. It is integral to our concepts of health and even morality whether one refrains from alcohol for religious reasons or evades meat for political52          . But strong opinions have not brought53          . Americans are ambivalent34 about what they put in their mouths. We have become54          of our foods, especially as we learn more about what they contain. The55          in food is still prosperous in the American consciousness. It’s no coincidence, then, that the first Thanksgiving holds the American imagination in such bondage35(束缚). It’s what we eat—and how we56          it with friends, family, and strangers—that help define America as a community today.
A. answerB. resultC. shareD. guiltyE. constant F. definedG. vanishH. adaptedI. creativeJ. belief K. suspiciousL. certaintyM. obsessedN. identifyO. ideals  
 
         
Section B Directions:There are 2 passages in this section.Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements.For each of them there are four choices marked A),B),C)  and D) .You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. Passage One Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage. Resources can be said to be scarce in both an absolute and relative sense: the surface of the Earth is finite, imposing37 absolute scarcity38; but the scarcity that concerns economists39 is the relative scarcity of resources in different uses. Materials used for one purpose cannot at the same time be used for other purposes; if the quantity of an input40 is limited, the  increased use of it in one manufacturing process must cause it to become less available for other uses. The cost of a product in terms of money may not measure its true cost to society. The true cost of, say, the construction of a supersonic jet is the value of the schools and refrigerators that will never be built as a result. Every act of production uses up some of society’s available resources; it means the foregoing of an opportunity to produce something else. In deciding how to use resources most effectively to satisfy the wants of the community, this opportunity cost must ultimately be taken into account. In a market economy the price of a good and the quantity supplied depend on the cost of making it, and that cost, ultimately, is the cost of not making other goods. The market mechanism41 enforces this relationship. The cost of, say, a pair of shoes is the price of the leather, the labor42, the fuel, and other elements used up in producing them. But the price of these inputs43, in turn, depends on what they can produce elsewhere—if the leather can be used to produce handbags that are valued highly by consumers, the prices of leather will be bid up correspondingly. 57. What does this passage mainly discuss? A)  The scarcity of manufactured goods. B)  The value of scarce materials. C)  The manufacturing of scarce goods. D)  The cost of producing shoes. 58. According to the passage, what are the opportunity costs of an item? A)  The amount of time and money spent in producing it. B)  The opportunities a person has to buy it. C)  The value of what could have been produced instead. D)  The value of the resources used in its production. 59. According to the passage, what is the relationship between production and resources? A)  Available resources stimulate44 production. B)  Resources are totally independent of production. C)  Production increases as resources increase. D)  Production lessens45 the amount of available resources. 60. What determines the price of a good in a market economy? A)  The cost of all elements in production.B)  The cost of not making other goods. C)  The efficiency of the manufacturing process.D)  The quantity of materials supplied. 61. Which of the following examples BEST reflects a cost to society as defined in the passage? A)  A family buying a dog. B)  Eating in a restaurant instead of at home. C)  Using land for a house instead of a park. D)  Staying at home instead of going to school. Passage Two Questions 62 to 66 are based on the following passage. According to sociologists, there are several different ways in which a person may become recognized as the leader of a social group. In the family, traditional cultural patterns confer leadership on one or both of the parents. In other cases, such as friendship groups, one or more persons may gradually emerge as leaders, although there is no formal process of selection. In larger groups, leaders are usually chosen formally through election or recruitment. Although leaders are often thought to be people with unusual personal ability, decades of research have failed to produce consistent evidence that there is any category of “natural leaders”. It seems that there is no set of personal qualities that all leaders have in common; rather, virtually any person may be recognized as a leader if the person has qualities that meet the needs of that particular group. Research suggests that there are typically two different leadership roles that are held by different individuals. Instrumental leadership is leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks by a social group. Group members look to instrumental leaders to “get things done”. Expressive46 leadership, on the other hand, is leadership that emphasizes the collective well?beings of a social group?s members. Expressive leaders are less concerned with the overall goals of the group than with providing emotional support to group members and attempting to minimize tension and conflict among them. Instrumental leaders are likely to have a rather secondary relationship to other group members. They give others and may discipline group members who inhibit(阻碍) attainment47 of the group?s goals. Expressive leaders cultivate a more personal or primary relationship to others in the group. They offer sympathy when someone experiences difficulties and try to resolve issues that threaten to divide the group. As the difference in these two roles suggest, expressive leaders generally receive more personal affection from group members; instrumental leaders, if they are successful in promoting group goals, may enjoy a more distant respect. 62. What does the passage mainly discuss? A)  The problems faced by leaders. B)  How leadership differs in small and large groups. C)  How social groups determine who will lead them. D)  The role of leaders in social groups. 63. The passage mentions all of the following ways by which people can become leaders EXCEPT                 . A)  recruitment B)  formal election process C)  specific leadership training D)  traditional cultural patterns 64. Which of the following statements about leadership can be inferred from paragraph 2? A)  person who is an effective leader of a particular group may not be an effective leader in another group. B)  Few people succeed in sharing a leadership role with another person. C)  A person can best learn how to be an effective leader by studying research on leadership. D)  Most people desire to be leaders but can produce little evidence of their qualifications. 65. In mentioning “natural leaders” in line 7, the author is making the point that        . A)  few people qualify as “natural leaders” B)  there is no proof that “natural leaders” exist C)  “natural leaders” are easily accepted by the members of a group D)  “natural leaders” share a similar set of characteristics 66. The passage indicates that instrumental leaders generally focus on           . A)  ensuring harmonious48 relationships B)  sharing responsibility with group members C)  identifying new leaders D)  achieving a goal   Part Ⅴ Error Correction Direction:This part consists of a short passage. In this passage, there are altogether 10 mistakes, one in each numbered line. You may have to change a word, add a word or delete a word. Mark out the mistakes and put the corrections in the blanks provided. If you change a word, cross it out and write the correct word in thecorresponding  blank. If you add a word, put an insertion mark (∧) in the right place and write the missing word in the blank. If you delete a word, cross it out and put a slash49 (/) in the blank.     When we speak of a human need, we mean something which is unnecessary to life, something we can live with.    67          Food is a human need. We will starve to death if there      68        were no food on earth; but even if we have plenty of food, but of the wrong kind, our bodies will have problem from lack of the right food. This is known for malnutrition(     69        养不良). In countries where are not developed, man’s food          70        needs are the same like in the most advanced societies. We     71        all need food and could live a good life on very few types of food. People in very developed countries eat only the kinds      72        of food which can be grown near their homes, whereas people in developed countries eat foods which are often grown many thousands of miles away form their homes. People in undeveloped countries are happy with less different kinds of foods than people in very developed ones are, so we can say that despite the needs of the two kinds         73        of people are the same, their wants are different. People in very developed countries eat many different types of meat—they could live by only one, but they would be very        74        unhappy because every time what they ate was the same. Even such special foods like chicken would be less fun to         75        eat if you had them every day. But we can’t just live on meat—we need other kinds of food like bread, rice, and vegetables which are no more necessary to our bodies.           76          Part ⅥTranslation (5 minutes) Direction:Complete the sentences on Answer Sheet 2 by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets. 提示:在实考试卷中,该试题在答题卡2上。 77. Jinling Hotel, where I stayed during my first visit to Nanjing,          (座落在)on Hanzhong Road. 78. I am sure we can solve the problem if we all          (集思广益). 79. Mary constantly           (挑剔) her husband, which annoys him. 80. It is no good waiting for the bus,           (我们不妨走回家吧). 81. Prices are going up rapidly. Petrol now            (现在汽油的价格是几年前的两倍).     答案与解析 Part ⅠWriting Dear Lawrence, It has been five years since we met each other last time. How time flies! How are things with you? The happy time we spent together is always on my mind and I really hope to meet you again. As you know, Spring Festival, Lunar New Year, is the most favorable holiday for us Chinese. With its colorful and rich traditions, it is celebrated50 almost in every part of China. Everyone is indulged in the dominant51 atmosphere of joyous52 family reunion and with the fresh and vigorous look people greet the New Year. The celebrations vary from place to place, but there are three traditions that have never differed throughout the country. First, the New Year’s Eve dinner is a symbol of family reunion, with all family members sitting around the steaming table, tasting a variety of delicious food and wishing each other health, success and happiness. Second, people, during the holidays, will visit each other to express their best regards and wishes. And finally, we can enjoy the marvelous lion and dragon dances symbolizing53 happiness, good fortune and prosperity.  The day is drawing nearer, my families and I sincerely invite you to join us for this year’s Spring Festival. If you’d like to, we can make further arrangements. Looking forward to your reply! Yours, Yuan Chao   Part ⅡReading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) 1. N.该句句意为:美国联邦调查局确切知道计算机犯罪造成了多大损失。本题解题依据为本文第二段 “Even the FBI,which attempts…is involved”,该句大意为:尽管FBI致力于对各种犯罪的上升和下降有清晰认识,但并不能精确说明损失多大,所以与原文之意不合。 2. Y. 该句句意为:计算机拥有者很容易利用大量计算机数据库,本题解题依据为第二段最后一段话“…the easy access of microcomputers to huge mainframe data bases.”与原文之义吻合。 3. Y. 该句句意为: 本文第三段暗示大多数利用计算机犯罪者是相关公司雇员。本题解题依据为文章第三段最后一句话,其大意为: 现实情况表明很可能是该公司雇员内部人…,与原文所述之义吻合。 4. N. 该句句意为: 许多公司不举报计算机犯罪是因为法律诉讼通常花费很多钱。解题依据为本文第九段第一和第二句话,他们不举报是害怕公众发现其计算机系统的弱点而对其丧失信心。据此可确定与原文所述不符。 5. N. 该句句意为: 当计算机犯罪在满是人的房间里发生时,通常有很多证人指证犯罪。本题解题依据为本文第六段第一句话,该句大意为:即使计算机犯罪发生在满是人的房间里,通常也无证人。据此可知该句所述之义与原文不符。 6. Y. 该句句意为:本篇文章主要是关于计算机犯罪的增长及与之作斗争的困难性,通览全文,尤其根据小标题的提示,我们不难看出文章主要论述了计算机犯罪与日俱增及难于发觉和阻止诸方面的原因,即文章的中心思想,与原文所述主旨吻合。 7. NG.该句句意为:计算机犯罪上升是因为有更多便宜的计算机。本文第二段用abc列出了计算机犯罪增加的三大原因,其中并未提及计算机便宜这一点。 8. twelve 答案依据为第二段第一句话。 9. an example “…be cited as an example”,表示引用来作为一个例证答案依据为文章最后一段第二句话。但原文没有直接照抄的语言,只能根据理解完成此空。 10. customer trust 答案依据为本文第九段最后一句话。 Part ⅢListening ComprehensionSection A 11. A12. B13. B14. B15. B              16. B17. D18. C19. D20. D 21. C22. A23. B24. D25. B Section B 26. D27. B28. C29. D30. A              31.B32. B33. A34. D35. B Section C 36~46题答案见听力文字稿   Part ⅣReading Comprehension (Reading in Depth)Section A 47. Dfeel是一个系动词,可以判断此处应填入一个形容词,通过上下文意思,以及后面介词about, 可以确定选项为Dguilty, 短语feel guilty about sth. “感到有愧。全句的意思为我们很爱吃,但是往往在吃完之后又有负罪感 48. Mbe obsessed36 with 为固定搭配,原意为附上/缠住/迷住心窍,放在本句表示十分重视。全句的意思为我们很关心健康和减肥,但肥胖却又空前地在蔓延 49. A本句缺一个名词作主语,并且根据和介词to的搭配,可以推断出正确选项answer 50. I 本句根据moreways可以判断出需要填入一个形容词构成比较级,根据上下文,表示旨在禁止酗酒的禁酒令,却激发了更多新奇的方法来酗酒,可以确定I为正确选项。 51. F本题较难。根据be by 确定应填入一个过去分词。再根据上下文,上文表示应该吃典型的美国人吃的食物,下文通过 but 转折,表示实际上美国的食物已经被诸如比萨和热狗这样的舶来品所诠释了,因此可以确定F为正确选项。 53. L由于横线后面没有宾语,可以确定不是形成bring的短语,这样本句所缺的为一名词,做bring的宾语。根据下文解释,美国人对他们所吃的食物的态度是矛盾的,可以推出本句意义为坚定的观点也不是确定不变的。因此可以确定L为正确选项。 54. K系动词become后应填入一个形容词,和后面介词of形成短语be/become suspicious of “感到怀疑 55. J本句缺一个名词作主语,并且根据和介词in的搭配,可以推断出正确选项belief“(have)belief in sth.” 相信 56. C本句是一般现在时,缺一个动词,且和with 搭配,确定选项share,“share sth with sb, 与某人分享某事 Section B 57. B主旨题。本文三段内容均围绕短缺原料的价值进行说明。文章第一段说明了什么叫原料相对短缺,第二段说明了什么叫机会成本,第三段说明了原料的价格是由什么决定的。 58. C细节归纳题。第二段中“Every act of production uses up some of society?s available resources; it means the foregoing of an opportunity to produce something else.”说明机会成本是用可生产的其他商品来衡量的,选项C正好符合该意思。 59. D细节归纳题。第一段“Materials used for one purpose cannot at the same time be used for other purposes; if the quantity of an input is limited, the increased use of it in one manufacturing process must cause it to become less available for other uses.”说明社会总资源是有限的,用掉其中一些就会使总量减少并限制其他商品的生产。 60. A细节归纳题。文章第三段“In a market economy the price of a good and the quantity supplied depends on the cost of making it”(市场经济条件下,商品的价格和产量取决于其成本),然后又说 “The cost of, say, a pair of shoes is the price of the leather, the labor, the fuel, and other elements used up in producing them.”以鞋子为例说明商品价格是由生产要求决定的。 61. C推断题。文主要阐述了经济学里面的一个重要概念——“机会成本,是讲商品生产和社会资源之间的关系。ABD均未涉及到生产领域,只有C符合本文的主旨。 62. D主旨题。本篇主要讨论不同的领导者(如instrumental leaders以及expressive leaders)在不同的社会群体中所充当的角色和发挥的功能。所以D为正确答案。ABC选项都不能正确概括本文主旨。 63. C细节理解题。A选项的招募(recruitment)和B选项选举程序(election process)都在第一段中作为大群体的领导者产生的方式被明确提到。D选项也在第一段中作为家庭领导者的产生的方式被明确提到。只有C选项没有作为产生领导者的一种方式在本文中被提及。 64. A推论题。A选项意思是:某一特定群体的有效领导者,不一定就可以成为另一群体的有效领导者。这正好与第二段的意思相吻合,即领导者没有一个固定的特点,只是符合了一个特定群体需要的人就有可能成为该群体的领导者(It seems…virtually any person may be recognized as a leader if the person has qualities that meet the needs of that particular group)。B选项和C选项的意思与本文无关。D选项意为:许多人想成为领导者,但却很少能拿出证据来证明他们具有这样的资格。显然是对文章意思的曲解。 65. B细节理解题。第二段中“…decades of research have failed to produce consistent evidence that there is any category of ‘natural leaders’”意思是说数十年来的研究并不能找出可靠证据来证明那些人可以成为天生领导者,与B项意思一致。 66. D细节理解题。第三、四段主要讲了两种类型的领导者的区别。其中instrumental leader侧重于群体目标的实现,而expressive leader相对于前者并不侧重于群体目标的实现,而是注重为群体成员提供情感支持,并尽力减少内部纷争。(Expressive leaders are less concerned with the overall goals of the group than with providing emotional support to group members and attempting to minimize tension and conflict among them.   Part ⅤError Correction 67. 本题考查上下文语义关系,unnecessary 改为necessary 。本句句意为:我们所谈及的人的需要,是指我们生活中必不可少的东西。据此,应用肯定意义的necessary 68. 本题考查虚拟语气用法, will改为would。根据英语语法,与一般现在事实相反的虚拟语气,条件句用一般过去时,主句用would加动词原形。 69. 本题考查搭配关系, for改为 as“be known as,被认为是…” “be known for,因而众所周知。根据题意,应是be known as,这被称为营养不良 70. 本题考查定语从句的关系词,where改为which/that。此处引导定语从句的关系词在定语从句里必须充当主语,而where 在定语从句里作地点状语,没有作主语的功能,因此,where改为whichthat 71. 本题考查固定搭配,like改为as“the same as…,与同样的,为固定搭配。 72. 本题考查上下文语义关系,developed改为undeveloped。考生做此题时要有全局意识。本句与下句是发达国家和不发达国家的两个对比。本句中whereas引出转折,前部分指欠发达国家的人们只食用在其家园附近种植的食物,而后部分指发达国家的人们吃的是距其家好几千英里之外生长的食物。之所以改成undeveloped 而不是underdeveloped是因为下句中也出现了undeveloped, 作为提示。 73. 本题考查介词用法,despite改为although/thoughdespite是介词,不能引导句子,如要引导,必须改成 “despite the fact that…, ”。比较简洁的方法是把despite改为althoughthough 74. 本题考查习惯用法,by改为on“live on (sth.), 继续生活, 为主食, 生活“live by (doing sth.),以为生。本句意思为:他们可以只吃一种肉。并且下文再次出现live on作为提示。 75. 本题考查固定搭配,like改为assuch as 为固定搭配。 76. 本题考查上下文语义关系,more改为less“no more necessary,表示否定,不重要多少 “no less necessary”是双重否定表示肯定,同样必要   Part ⅥTranslation 77. is situated54 78. put our heads together 79. finds fault with 80. we may/might as well walk home 81. petrol now is twice as expensive as it was a few years ago.



点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 embezzlement RqoxY     
n.盗用,贪污
参考例句:
  1. He was accused of graft and embezzlement and was chained and thrown into prison.他因被指控贪污盗窃而锒铛入狱。
  2. The judge sent him to prison for embezzlement of funds.法官因他盗用公款将其送入监牢。
2 alteration rxPzO     
n.变更,改变;蚀变
参考例句:
  1. The shirt needs alteration.这件衬衣需要改一改。
  2. He easily perceived there was an alteration in my countenance.他立刻看出我的脸色和往常有些不同。
3 sabotage 3Tmzz     
n.怠工,破坏活动,破坏;v.从事破坏活动,妨害,破坏
参考例句:
  1. They tried to sabotage my birthday party.他们企图破坏我的生日晚会。
  2. The fire at the factory was caused by sabotage.那家工厂的火灾是有人蓄意破坏引起的。
4 offenses 4bfaaba4d38a633561a0153eeaf73f91     
n.进攻( offense的名词复数 );(球队的)前锋;进攻方法;攻势
参考例句:
  1. It's wrong of you to take the child to task for such trifling offenses. 因这类小毛病责备那孩子是你的不对。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  2. Thus, Congress cannot remove an executive official except for impeachable offenses. 因此,除非有可弹劾的行为,否则国会不能罢免行政官员。 来自英汉非文学 - 行政法
5 annually VzYzNO     
adv.一年一次,每年
参考例句:
  1. Many migratory birds visit this lake annually.许多候鸟每年到这个湖上作短期逗留。
  2. They celebrate their wedding anniversary annually.他们每年庆祝一番结婚纪念日。
6 precisely zlWzUb     
adv.恰好,正好,精确地,细致地
参考例句:
  1. It's precisely that sort of slick sales-talk that I mistrust.我不相信的正是那种油腔滑调的推销宣传。
  2. The man adjusted very precisely.那个人调得很准。
7 microcomputer EDkxx     
n.微型计算机,微机
参考例句:
  1. The main frame is the heart of a microcomputer system.主框架的核心是一个微机系统。
  2. A microcomputer is a fast and accurate symbol processing system.微型计算机是一种快速、精确的符号处理系统。
8 microcomputers 9d586e7e93514db2c23c6973518deef0     
微型计算机( microcomputer的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  1. Microcomputers are playing an important role in our lives. 微型计算机在我们生活中扮演着重要的角色。
  2. Many microcomputers do allow you to directly address a memory address. 目前有许多微计算机允许你直接访问某个存储单元。
9 offender ZmYzse     
n.冒犯者,违反者,犯罪者
参考例句:
  1. They all sued out a pardon for an offender.他们请求法院赦免一名罪犯。
  2. The authorities often know that sex offenders will attack again when they are released.当局一般都知道性犯罪者在获释后往往会再次犯案。
10 fingerprints 9b456c81cc868e5bdf3958245615450b     
n.指纹( fingerprint的名词复数 )v.指纹( fingerprint的第三人称单数 )
参考例句:
  1. Everyone's fingerprints are unique. 每个人的指纹都是独一无二的。
  2. They wore gloves so as not to leave any fingerprints behind (them). 他们戴着手套,以免留下指纹。 来自《简明英汉词典》
11 investigation MRKzq     
n.调查,调查研究
参考例句:
  1. In an investigation,a new fact became known, which told against him.在调查中新发现了一件对他不利的事实。
  2. He drew the conclusion by building on his own investigation.他根据自己的调查研究作出结论。
12 capabilities f7b11037f2050959293aafb493b7653c     
n.能力( capability的名词复数 );可能;容量;[复数]潜在能力
参考例句:
  1. He was somewhat pompous and had a high opinion of his own capabilities. 他有点自大,自视甚高。 来自辞典例句
  2. Some programmers use tabs to break complex product capabilities into smaller chunks. 一些程序员认为,标签可以将复杂的功能分为每个窗格一组简单的功能。 来自About Face 3交互设计精髓
13 misuse XEfxx     
n.误用,滥用;vt.误用,滥用
参考例句:
  1. It disturbs me profoundly that you so misuse your talents.你如此滥用自己的才能,使我深感不安。
  2. He was sacked for computer misuse.他因滥用计算机而被解雇了。
14 misuses fc4589550dc7faed88759d2800d65d17     
n.用错,滥用( misuse的名词复数 );误用者v.使用…不当( misuse的第三人称单数 );把…派作不正当的用途;虐待;滥用
参考例句:
  1. He misuses his horses by giving them loads that are too heavy. 他给它们过重的负荷来虐待他的马。 来自互联网
  2. He often misuses his authority to tyrannize his underlings. 他常用手中的职权凌轹下属。 来自互联网
15 specially Hviwq     
adv.特定地;特殊地;明确地
参考例句:
  1. They are specially packaged so that they stack easily.它们经过特别包装以便于堆放。
  2. The machine was designed specially for demolishing old buildings.这种机器是专为拆毁旧楼房而设计的。
16 investigators e970f9140785518a87fc81641b7c89f7     
n.调查者,审查者( investigator的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  1. This memo could be the smoking gun that investigators have been looking for. 这份备忘录可能是调查人员一直在寻找的证据。
  2. The team consisted of six investigators and two secretaries. 这个团队由六个调查人员和两个秘书组成。 来自《简明英汉词典》
17 alleged gzaz3i     
a.被指控的,嫌疑的
参考例句:
  1. It was alleged that he had taken bribes while in office. 他被指称在任时收受贿赂。
  2. alleged irregularities in the election campaign 被指称竞选运动中的不正当行为
18 prosecute d0Mzn     
vt.告发;进行;vi.告发,起诉,作检察官
参考例句:
  1. I am trying my best to prosecute my duties.我正在尽力履行我的职责。
  2. Is there enough evidence to prosecute?有没有起诉的足够证据?
19 tampering b4c81c279f149b738b8941a10e40864a     
v.窜改( tamper的现在分词 );篡改;(用不正当手段)影响;瞎摆弄
参考例句:
  1. Two policemen were accused of tampering with the evidence. 有两名警察被控篡改证据。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  2. As Harry London had forecast, Brookside's D-day caught many meter-tampering offenders. 正如哈里·伦敦预见到的那样,布鲁克赛德的D日行动抓住了不少非法改装仪表的人。 来自辞典例句
20 offenders dee5aee0bcfb96f370137cdbb4b5cc8d     
n.冒犯者( offender的名词复数 );犯规者;罪犯;妨害…的人(或事物)
参考例句:
  1. Long prison sentences can be a very effective deterrent for offenders. 判处长期徒刑可对违法者起到强有力的威慑作用。
  2. Purposeful work is an important part of the regime for young offenders. 使从事有意义的劳动是管理少年犯的重要方法。
21 fully Gfuzd     
adv.完全地,全部地,彻底地;充分地
参考例句:
  1. The doctor asked me to breathe in,then to breathe out fully.医生让我先吸气,然后全部呼出。
  2. They soon became fully integrated into the local community.他们很快就完全融入了当地人的圈子。
22 apprehending a2f3cf89539c7b4eb7b3550a6768432c     
逮捕,拘押( apprehend的现在分词 ); 理解
参考例句:
  1. China has not been totally unsuccessful apprehending corruption suspects. 在逮捕腐化分子方面,中国并非毫无进展。
  2. Apprehending violence is not an easy task. 惧怕暴力不是一件容易的事。
23 decided lvqzZd     
adj.决定了的,坚决的;明显的,明确的
参考例句:
  1. This gave them a decided advantage over their opponents.这使他们比对手具有明显的优势。
  2. There is a decided difference between British and Chinese way of greeting.英国人和中国人打招呼的方式有很明显的区别。
24 embezzled 16c2ea97026b0c3b4eec1ddcbd695fab     
v.贪污,盗用(公款)( embezzle的过去式和过去分词 )
参考例句:
  1. The clerk embezzled a thousand pounds from the bank where he worked. 那个职员在他工作的银行里贪污了一千英镑。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  2. The cashier embezzled $ 50,000 from the bank. 出纳员盗用了银行5万美元。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
25 prosecution uBWyL     
n.起诉,告发,检举,执行,经营
参考例句:
  1. The Smiths brought a prosecution against the organizers.史密斯家对组织者们提出起诉。
  2. He attempts to rebut the assertion made by the prosecution witness.他试图反驳原告方证人所作的断言。
26 casually UwBzvw     
adv.漠不关心地,无动于衷地,不负责任地
参考例句:
  1. She remarked casually that she was changing her job.她当时漫不经心地说要换工作。
  2. I casually mentioned that I might be interested in working abroad.我不经意地提到我可能会对出国工作感兴趣。
27 automobile rP1yv     
n.汽车,机动车
参考例句:
  1. He is repairing the brake lever of an automobile.他正在修理汽车的刹车杆。
  2. The automobile slowed down to go around the curves in the road.汽车在路上转弯时放慢了速度。
28 steer 5u5w3     
vt.驾驶,为…操舵;引导;vi.驾驶
参考例句:
  1. If you push the car, I'll steer it.如果你来推车,我就来驾车。
  2. It's no use trying to steer the boy into a course of action that suits you.想说服这孩子按你的方式行事是徒劳的。
29 afterward fK6y3     
adv.后来;以后
参考例句:
  1. Let's go to the theatre first and eat afterward. 让我们先去看戏,然后吃饭。
  2. Afterward,the boy became a very famous artist.后来,这男孩成为一个很有名的艺术家。
30 unprecedented 7gSyJ     
adj.无前例的,新奇的
参考例句:
  1. The air crash caused an unprecedented number of deaths.这次空难的死亡人数是空前的。
  2. A flood of this sort is really unprecedented.这样大的洪水真是十年九不遇。
31 epidemic 5iTzz     
n.流行病;盛行;adj.流行性的,流传极广的
参考例句:
  1. That kind of epidemic disease has long been stamped out.那种传染病早已绝迹。
  2. The authorities tried to localise the epidemic.当局试图把流行病限制在局部范围。
32 prohibition 7Rqxw     
n.禁止;禁令,禁律
参考例句:
  1. The prohibition against drunken driving will save many lives.禁止酒后开车将会减少许多死亡事故。
  2. They voted in favour of the prohibition of smoking in public areas.他们投票赞成禁止在公共场所吸烟。
33 shackles 91740de5ccb43237ed452a2a2676e023     
手铐( shackle的名词复数 ); 脚镣; 束缚; 羁绊
参考例句:
  1. a country struggling to free itself from the shackles of colonialism 为摆脱殖民主义的枷锁而斗争的国家
  2. The cars of the train are coupled together by shackles. 火车的车厢是用钩链连接起来的。
34 ambivalent Wx4zV     
adj.含糊不定的;(态度等)矛盾的
参考例句:
  1. She remained ambivalent about her marriage.她对于自己的婚事仍然拿不定主意。
  2. Although she professed fear of the Russians,she seemed to have ambivalent feelings toward Philby himself.虽然她承认害怕俄国人,然而她似乎对菲尔比本人有一种矛盾的感情。
35 bondage 0NtzR     
n.奴役,束缚
参考例句:
  1. Masters sometimes allowed their slaves to buy their way out of bondage.奴隶主们有时允许奴隶为自己赎身。
  2. They aim to deliver the people who are in bondage to superstitious belief.他们的目的在于解脱那些受迷信束缚的人。
36 obsessed 66a4be1417f7cf074208a6d81c8f3384     
adj.心神不宁的,鬼迷心窍的,沉迷的
参考例句:
  1. He's obsessed by computers. 他迷上了电脑。
  2. The fear of death obsessed him throughout his old life. 他晚年一直受着死亡恐惧的困扰。
37 imposing 8q9zcB     
adj.使人难忘的,壮丽的,堂皇的,雄伟的
参考例句:
  1. The fortress is an imposing building.这座城堡是一座宏伟的建筑。
  2. He has lost his imposing appearance.他已失去堂堂仪表。
38 scarcity jZVxq     
n.缺乏,不足,萧条
参考例句:
  1. The scarcity of skilled workers is worrying the government.熟练工人的缺乏困扰着政府。
  2. The scarcity of fruit was caused by the drought.水果供不应求是由于干旱造成的。
39 economists 2ba0a36f92d9c37ef31cc751bca1a748     
n.经济学家,经济专家( economist的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  1. The sudden rise in share prices has confounded economists. 股价的突然上涨使经济学家大惑不解。
  2. Foreign bankers and economists cautiously welcomed the minister's initiative. 外国银行家和经济学家对部长的倡议反应谨慎。 来自《简明英汉词典》
40 input X6lxm     
n.输入(物);投入;vt.把(数据等)输入计算机
参考例句:
  1. I will forever be grateful for his considerable input.我将永远感激他的大量投入。
  2. All this information had to be input onto the computer.所有这些信息都必须输入计算机。
41 mechanism zCWxr     
n.机械装置;机构,结构
参考例句:
  1. The bones and muscles are parts of the mechanism of the body.骨骼和肌肉是人体的组成部件。
  2. The mechanism of the machine is very complicated.这台机器的结构是非常复杂的。
42 labor P9Tzs     
n.劳动,努力,工作,劳工;分娩;vi.劳动,努力,苦干;vt.详细分析;麻烦
参考例句:
  1. We are never late in satisfying him for his labor.我们从不延误付给他劳动报酬。
  2. He was completely spent after two weeks of hard labor.艰苦劳动两周后,他已经疲惫不堪了。
43 inputs a8aff967e1649a1c82ea607c881e8091     
n.输入( input的名词复数 );投入;输入端;输入的数据v.把…输入电脑( input的第三人称单数 )
参考例句:
  1. Uncheck the inputs checked for optimization in the previous stage. 不测试那些已经测试过的优化了的以前步骤的inputs.(变量参数)。 来自互联网
  2. Just in case, save in a file the inputs obtained at the previous stage. 以防万一,保存以前步骤获得的inputs(变量参数值)到一个文件中去。 来自互联网
44 stimulate wuSwL     
vt.刺激,使兴奋;激励,使…振奋
参考例句:
  1. Your encouragement will stimulate me to further efforts.你的鼓励会激发我进一步努力。
  2. Success will stimulate the people for fresh efforts.成功能鼓舞人们去作新的努力。
45 lessens 77e6709415979411b220a451af0eb9d3     
变少( lessen的第三人称单数 ); 减少(某事物)
参考例句:
  1. Eating a good diet significantly lessens the risk of heart disease. 良好的饮食习惯能大大减少患心脏病的机率。
  2. Alcohol lessens resistance to diseases. 含有酒精的饮料会减弱对疾病的抵抗力。
46 expressive shwz4     
adj.表现的,表达…的,富于表情的
参考例句:
  1. Black English can be more expressive than standard English.黑人所使用的英语可能比正式英语更有表现力。
  2. He had a mobile,expressive,animated face.他有一张多变的,富于表情的,生动活泼的脸。
47 attainment Dv3zY     
n.达到,到达;[常pl.]成就,造诣
参考例句:
  1. We congratulated her upon her attainment to so great an age.我们祝贺她高寿。
  2. The attainment of the success is not easy.成功的取得并不容易。
48 harmonious EdWzx     
adj.和睦的,调和的,和谐的,协调的
参考例句:
  1. Their harmonious relationship resulted in part from their similar goals.他们关系融洽的部分原因是他们有着相似的目标。
  2. The room was painted in harmonious colors.房间油漆得色彩调和。
49 slash Hrsyq     
vi.大幅度削减;vt.猛砍,尖锐抨击,大幅减少;n.猛砍,斜线,长切口,衣衩
参考例句:
  1. The shop plans to slash fur prices after Spring Festival.该店计划在春节之后把皮货降价。
  2. Don't slash your horse in that cruel way.不要那样残忍地鞭打你的马。
50 celebrated iwLzpz     
adj.有名的,声誉卓著的
参考例句:
  1. He was soon one of the most celebrated young painters in England.不久他就成了英格兰最负盛名的年轻画家之一。
  2. The celebrated violinist was mobbed by the audience.观众团团围住了这位著名的小提琴演奏家。
51 dominant usAxG     
adj.支配的,统治的;占优势的;显性的;n.主因,要素,主要的人(或物);显性基因
参考例句:
  1. The British were formerly dominant in India.英国人从前统治印度。
  2. She was a dominant figure in the French film industry.她在法国电影界是个举足轻重的人物。
52 joyous d3sxB     
adj.充满快乐的;令人高兴的
参考例句:
  1. The lively dance heightened the joyous atmosphere of the scene.轻快的舞蹈给这场戏渲染了欢乐气氛。
  2. They conveyed the joyous news to us soon.他们把这一佳音很快地传递给我们。
53 symbolizing 35105848014d5f7a01e1597bc72da8e8     
v.象征,作为…的象征( symbolize的现在分词 )
参考例句:
  1. This symbol later evolved into a common hieroglyphic symbolizing victory. 这幕场景后来逐渐演化为象征胜利的普通象形文字。 来自时文部分
  2. Mooncakes reunion, is symbolizing the Mid-Autumn festival will feed. 月饼象征着团圆,是中秋佳节必食之品。 来自互联网
54 situated JiYzBH     
adj.坐落在...的,处于某种境地的
参考例句:
  1. The village is situated at the margin of a forest.村子位于森林的边缘。
  2. She is awkwardly situated.她的处境困难。
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