911全国演说-美国总统布什
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背景知识 2001年9月11日,是美国人以至全世界不会忘记的日子。在两小时之内,四架美国民航客机被骑劫。其中两架撞向纽约世界贸易中心,楼高110层、标志了纽约经贸中心地位的双子塔,分别被撞穿一个大洞,烈焰滔天,然后在全世界目光注视之下,相继倒塌,灰飞烟灭。 第三架被骑劫民航客机,撞向美国首都华盛顿的国防部--五角大楼,第四架在宾夕法尼亚州的匹兹堡东南面坠毁。 今次是日本偷袭珍珠港以来,美国受到的最大型袭击,死亡人数至少数以千计,人民一片恐慌,华盛顿进入紧急状态。 美国总统布什,在恐怖分子发动袭击之后大约12小时,在白宫发表演说,谴责恐怖分子的所为是邪恶的行为,誓言会动员所有力量,捉拿幕后策划的元凶,亦会对付那些包庇恐怖分子的人。
演讲正文 President Bush's address
11/9/2001, Tuesday night, After terrorist attacks on New York and Washington

Good evening. Today, our fellow citizens, our way of life, our very freedom came under attack in a series of deliberate and deadly terrorist acts.

The victims were in airplanes or in their offices -- secretaries, businessmen and women, military and federal workers. Moms and dads. Friends and neighbors.

Thousands of lives were suddenly ended by evil, despicable acts of terror.

The pictures of airplanes flying into buildings, fires burning, huge structures collapsing2, have filled us with disbelief, terrible sadness and a quiet, unyielding anger.

These acts of mass murder were intended to frighten our nation into chaos3 and retreat. But they have failed. Our country is strong. A great people has been moved to defend a great nation.

Terrorist attacks can shake the foundations of our biggest buildings, but they cannot touch the foundation of America. These acts shatter steel, but they cannot dent1 the steel of American resolve.

America was targeted for attack because we're the brightest beacon4 for freedom and opportunity in the world. And no one will keep that light from shining.

Today, our nation saw evil, the very worst of human nature, and we responded with the best of America, with the daring of our rescue workers, with the caring for strangers and neighbors who came to give blood and help in any way they could.

Immediately following the first attack, I implemented5 our government's emergency response plans. Our military is powerful, and it's prepared. Our emergency teams are working in New York City and Washington, D.C., to help with local rescue efforts.

Our first priority is to get help to those who have been injured and to take every precaution to protect our citizens at home and around the world from further attacks.

The functions of our government continue without interruption. Federal agencies in Washington which had to be evacuated6 today are reopening for essential personnel tonight and will be open for business tomorrow.

Our financial institutions remain strong, and the American economy will be open for business as well.

The search is underway for those who are behind these evil acts. I've directed the full resources for our intelligence and law enforcement communities to find those responsible and bring them to justice. We will make no distinction between the terrorists who committed these acts and those who harbor them.

I appreciate so very much the members of Congress who have joined me in strongly condemning7 these attacks. And on behalf of the American people, I thank the many world leaders who have called to offer their condolences and assistance.

America and our friends and allies join with all those who want peace and security in the world and we stand together to win the war against terrorism.

Tonight I ask for your prayers for all those who grieve, for the children whose worlds have been shattered, for all whose sense of safety and security has been threatened. And I pray they will be comforted by a power greater than any of us spoken through the ages in Psalm8 23: "Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I fear no evil, for You are with me."

This is a day when all Americans from every walk of life unite in our resolve for justice and peace. America has stood down enemies before, and we will do so this time.

None of us will ever forget this day, yet we go forward to defend freedom and all that is good and just in our world.

Thank you. Good night and God bless America.
评价讲解 2001年9月11日是人类文明世界的一个耻辱日,这一日,据说是伊斯兰的极端恐怖分子,骑劫了四架美国民航客机,用自杀方式,攻击纽约世贸中心的一对摩天大厦,以及华盛顿国防部的五角大楼。
美国蒙受奇耻大辱,举国上下久未经历如此大的灾难,人民可能会陷于崩溃,这时若没有一个强而有力的政府和领袖,很容易会酿成更大的灾难。美国总统布什上任短短七个月,其路线、形像和政策,均备受批评,但在如此重大时刻,布什则显示出非凡的领导能力,事发当晚,他正式向全国国民发表了一篇演说。
布什这次演说,未必可和我们介绍过的林肯和马丁路德金相比,但就文采和语调而言,无疑亦是一篇有份量之作,演词有几点值得讨论。
例如︰The victims were in airplanes or in their offices -- secretaries, businessmen and women, military and federal workers. Moms and dads. Friends and neighbours. 布什在这篇演说中用了宏观的手法,描述在灾难中死亡的美国人,句中采用的名词,所代表的阶级非常广泛,是经过深思熟虑挑选出来的。
Secretaries秘书、businessmen 商人,接着提妇女women,大家也许知道,女权运动在美国非常兴盛,这一句women妇女,是直接向美国的妇女动之以情。最后一定要讲Moms and dads,不用fathers and mothers, Moms and dads原本是一些不登大雅之堂的俗语,但演讲要视对象而定,布什是向全国人民以至全世界人民演讲,一定要用尽量浅白的言语。Moms and dads,每个字只有一个音节,比fathers and mothers更加简洁。
细心想想这些词汇,可说将所有人一网打尽,而且布什用了一连串这样的字眼︰爹地、妈咪、邻居和朋友……即使你不认识灾场中的死伤者,感觉上也会跟他们非常亲切。这就是一个演说家所表现出来的非凡的智能。
另外一句也很重要︰Thousands of lives were suddenly ended by evil, despicable acts of terror. 这里可显示出英语被动语式的灵活,布什将数千条无辜的生命放在前面,而evil则是邪恶。英语中evil这个字不能随便用,他当然可说bad、wicked或criminal,但这些只是级数比较低的字眼,指称这样严重的罪行,一定要将文字兵器库内那口核弹抬出来,这个核弹级的形容词就是evil。
历史上只有希特拉配得上用evil这形容词,所以当我们在香港听到有些人说法轮功是邪教,译成英文变成It is an evil cult时,肯定令英语世界的人闻之失笑,用evil来形容一个信仰,绝对言过其实、非常夸张。字典可告诉你evil是甚么意思,但放在文本中,其上下文所传达出来的意思,就一定要在英语世界生活过,才能准确使用。
前港督彭定康离任前在立法局发表最后一份施政报告时,也曾引用美国诗人杰克˙伦敦(Jack London)的诗句,一篇有力的演词,有时必须引用古今名人的例句和经典,加强自己的说法的感染力。布什总统引用了圣经诗篇中的句子︰Tonight I ask for your prayers for all those who grieve, for the children whose worlds have been shattered, for all whose sense of safety and security has been threatened. And I pray they will be comforted by a power greater than any of us spoken through the ages in Psalm 23: "Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I fear no evil, for You are with me."
这里用了一个委婉词Euphemism︰a power greater than any of us,指的是举头三尺的神明,其实用一个God字已可代替,但这里不用God字,因为要留待最后一句才用。在英语演讲中,有些字眼要不断重复,有些字则要灵活变化。
"Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I fear no evil, for You are with me." You当然是用大楷,因为指上帝,the valley of the shadow of death是死亡阴影的幽谷。在小说天路历程The Pilgrim's Progress中,描述了一个基督徒,在寻找永生的旅途上,也路经了the valley of the shadow of death。
布什所用的结句是︰None of us will ever forget this day, yet we go forward to defend freedom and all that is good and just in our world. Thank you. Good night and God bless America.
来到这里,结论应有千钧之重,但用一句最简单的日常生活的问候语、道别语︰Thank you. Good night and God bless America作结,如此俗套的用语,在这里却有画龙点睛的效果。
布什的演讲最后有个关于文法的地方,值得拿出来讨论︰We go forward to defend freedom.我们会挺身而出捍卫自由。go forward to后面得配一个简单的动词,很多香港人不知道forward to充满机关,如︰We look forward to seeing you soon! look forward to后面一定要seeing you soon,因为前面一句forward是go的副词,后一句look forward to三个字代表一个动词hope。但用hope时,紧记要用We hope to see you soon!  


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 dent Bmcz9     
n.凹痕,凹坑;初步进展
参考例句:
  1. I don't know how it came about but I've got a dent in the rear of my car.我不知道是怎么回事,但我的汽车后部有了一个凹痕。
  2. That dent is not big enough to be worth hammering out.那个凹陷不大,用不着把它锤平。
2 collapsing 6becc10b3eacfd79485e188c6ac90cb2     
压扁[平],毁坏,断裂
参考例句:
  1. Rescuers used props to stop the roof of the tunnel collapsing. 救援人员用支柱防止隧道顶塌陷。
  2. The rocks were folded by collapsing into the center of the trough. 岩石由于坍陷进入凹槽的中心而发生褶皱。
3 chaos 7bZyz     
n.混乱,无秩序
参考例句:
  1. After the failure of electricity supply the city was in chaos.停电后,城市一片混乱。
  2. The typhoon left chaos behind it.台风后一片混乱。
4 beacon KQays     
n.烽火,(警告用的)闪火灯,灯塔
参考例句:
  1. The blink of beacon could be seen for miles.灯塔的光亮在数英里之外都能看见。
  2. The only light over the deep black sea was the blink shone from the beacon.黑黢黢的海面上唯一的光明就只有灯塔上闪现的亮光了。
5 implemented a0211e5272f6fc75ac06e2d62558aff0     
v.实现( implement的过去式和过去分词 );执行;贯彻;使生效
参考例句:
  1. This agreement, if not implemented, is a mere scrap of paper. 这个协定如不执行只不过是一纸空文。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
  2. The economy is in danger of collapse unless far-reaching reforms are implemented. 如果不实施影响深远的改革,经济就面临崩溃的危险。 来自辞典例句
6 evacuated b2adcc11308c78e262805bbcd7da1669     
撤退者的
参考例句:
  1. Police evacuated nearby buildings. 警方已将附近大楼的居民疏散。
  2. The fireman evacuated the guests from the burning hotel. 消防队员把客人们从燃烧着的旅馆中撤出来。
7 condemning 3c571b073a8d53beeff1e31a57d104c0     
v.(通常因道义上的原因而)谴责( condemn的现在分词 );宣判;宣布…不能使用;迫使…陷于不幸的境地
参考例句:
  1. The government issued a statement condemning the killings. 政府发表声明谴责这些凶杀事件。
  2. I concur with the speaker in condemning what has been done. 我同意发言者对所做的事加以谴责。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
8 psalm aB5yY     
n.赞美诗,圣诗
参考例句:
  1. The clergyman began droning the psalm.牧师开始以单调而低沈的语调吟诵赞美诗。
  2. The minister droned out the psalm.牧师喃喃地念赞美诗。
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