珍珠港演说-罗斯福
文章来源: 文章作者: 发布时间:2006-12-30 03:09 字体: [ ]  进入论坛
(单词翻译:双击或拖选)
背景知识 日本由1931年起,在亚洲进行军国主义扩张活动,到1939年,日本已侵占大部分中国领土,并准备挥军东南亚国家,攫取这些地区的天然资源。1940年,日本和德国、意大利组成轴心国,与英法为首的同盟国对垒。 欧洲陷于二次世界大战的战火中,但美国仍然不想卷入战争,只对日采取石油禁运,并希望透过谈判,劝阻日本的侵略行动。不过日本决定先发制人,在1941年12月7日,派出海空军部队,突袭美国位于夏威夷的海军基地--珍珠港 (Pearl Harbor),结果成功击沉、击毁美国19艘大型舰只,炸毁美国150架飞机,造成 2400多名美国人死亡,伤 1178 人。而日本付出的代价轻微,仅损失飞机 20多架和5艘袖珍潜水艇。 当时的美国总统罗斯福 (Franklin Delano Roosevelt),在发生突袭后第二日,在国会发表对日宣战的著名演说--珍珠港演说 (Pearl Harbor Speech)。美国人在日本偷袭珍珠港前,对应否加入二次大战存在分歧,偷袭事件激起民愤,结果全国团结起来,支持参战。德国和意大利亦于3日后,对美国宣战。 罗斯福是美国第32任总统,在位时间长达12年。他在1921年(39岁时)曾染上小儿麻痹症,双脚瘫痪,但他并未放弃从政的道路,继出任纽约州长后,在1933年成功入主白宫,并三次成功竞选连任,1945年4月12 日,罗斯福第4次宣誓成为美国总统后不久,因脑溢血而离开人世。
演说原文 PEARL HARBOR SPEECH
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
December 8, 1941
To the Congress of the United States:
Yesterday, Dec. 7, 1941 - a date which will live in infamy1 - the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately2 attacked by naval3 and air forces of the Empire of Japan. The United States was at peace with that nation and, at the solicitation4 of Japan, was still in conversation with the government and its emperor looking toward the maintenance of peace in the Pacific. Indeed, one hour after Japanese air squadrons had commenced bombing in Oahu, the Japanese ambassador to the United States and his colleagues delivered to the Secretary of State a formal reply to a recent American message. While this reply stated that it seemed useless to continue the existing diplomatic negotiations5, it contained no threat or hint of war or armed attack. It will be recorded that the distance of Hawaii from Japan makes it obvious that the attack was deliberately planned many days or even weeks ago. During the intervening time, the Japanese government has deliberately sought to deceive the United States by false statements and expressions of hope for continued peace. The attack yesterday on the Hawaiian islands has caused severe damage to American naval and military forces. Very many American lives have been lost. In addition, American ships have been reported torpedoed6 on the high seas between San Francisco and Honolulu. Yesterday, the Japanese government also launched an attack against Malaya.
Last night, Japanese forces attacked Hong Kong.
Last night, Japanese forces attacked Guam.
Last night, Japanese forces attacked the Philippine Islands.
Last night, the Japanese attacked Wake Island.
This morning, the Japanese attacked Midway Island.
Japan has, therefore, undertaken a surprise offensive extending throughout the Pacific area. The facts of yesterday speak for themselves. The people of the United States have already formed their opinions and well understand the implications to the very life and safety of our nation. As commander in chief of the Army and Navy, I have directed that all measures be taken for our defense7. Always will we remember the character of the onslaught against us.
No matter how long it may take us to overcome this premeditated invasion, the American people in their righteous might will win through to absolute victory.
I believe I interpret the will of the Congress and of the people when I assert that we will not only defend ourselves to the uttermost, but will make very certain that this form of treachery shall never endanger us again. Hostilities8 exist. There is no blinking at the fact that that our people, our territory and our interests are in grave danger. With confidence in our armed forces - with the unbounding determination of our people - we will gain the inevitable9 triumph - so help us God. I ask that the Congress declare that since the unprovoked and dastardly attack by Japan on Sunday, Dec. 7, a state of war has existed between the United States and the Japanese empire. 评价讲解 很多人将2001年9月11日恐怖分子袭击纽约和华盛顿,比作60年前的日本偷袭珍珠港事件,当时的美国总统罗斯福(Franklin Delano Roosevelt),于日本发动突袭后的第二日,在国会发表美国对日宣战的著名演说。
和布什的演说一样,罗斯福一开始就把事件的时间和性质交代清楚︰Yesterday, Dec. 7, 1941 - a date which will live in infamy - the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.
昨日,1941年12月7日是耻辱的一天(Yesterday, Dec. 7, 1941 - a date which will live in infamy),成为历史的名言,不用a date with infamy,是为了表示庄重。
拿这一句和布什911演说的第一句比较︰Today, our fellow citizens, our way of life, our very freedom came under attack in a series of deliberate and deadly terrorist acts. 大家都用了deliberately或deliberate,字典解作蓄意,但在这两篇演说中的意思,是有预谋或有阴谋,带有强烈批判意义。
马丁路德金在I have a Dream演说中,不断重复关键的字眼和句子,以加强煽动力,其实也是采用了罗斯福重复的手法︰
Last night, Japanese forces attacked Hong Kong.
Last night, Japanese forces attacked Guam.
Last night, Japanese forces attacked the Philippine Islands.
Last night, the Japanese attacked Wake Island.
This morning, the Japanese attacked Midway Island.
罗斯福一连用了4个Last night和5个Japanese,绝不是累赘,也不是单调,反而令演说充满一种凝重的节奏。
演说中有一个句子的结构非常特别︰Always will we remember the character of the onslaught against us. 这是一个倒装的句子,很多人以为应该是︰We will always remember the character of the onslaught against us. 或者不用character,用nature︰We will always remember the nature of the onslaught against us. 其实Always will放在前面,是一种倒装的修辞方法,强调永远的意思,如此奇耻大辱,国民将会永志不忘。
英语中这样的倒装用法不多,另一个例子是︰Not until I finish the job, may I go. 没有完成工作之前,我不能离开。正确的讲法应为︰I may not go until I finish the job. 倒装句法较灵活,但通常用于书面语。
罗斯福演说的结论是向日本宣战︰I ask that the Congress declare that since the unprovoked and dastardly attack by Japan on Sunday, Dec. 7, a state of war has existed between the United States and the Japanese empire. 总统权力虽然很大,但所有的行政权力,必须要由国会批准,这种上尊下卑、繁文缛节,行政与立法的关系,必须交代清楚,罗斯福不能自己说I declare that,而要不厌其烦地用两个that︰I ask that the Congress declare that。
这一句用得非常聪明,他说美国和日本已经存在了战争状态,避免了我向你宣战的主语和宾语的关系。这是学英语一个比较难的地方,因为中国人学英文,往往受中文思维影响,如美国向日本宣战,但英语的客观说法︰美国和日本之间存在战争状态,更能营造沉重、不共戴天、势不两立的激愤和仇恨。
演说中有一句,用了一个较特别的字眼︰Japanese air squadrons had commenced bombing in Oahu. 罗斯福用Commence,而不是我们常用的Start 和Begin,因为前者较正式。我们也要留意这三个词的习惯用法︰Commence bombing / Start bombing / Begin to bomb. 这些英语的习惯用法,只能死记硬背,没有快捷方式可走。
罗斯福和布什发表演说的时间相距60年,但两篇演说一脉相承,在段落和字句中都闪耀着美国精神的光芒,难怪美国一直保持其超级强国的地位。
   


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1 infamy j71x2     
n.声名狼藉,出丑,恶行
参考例句:
  1. They may grant you power,honour,and riches but afflict you with servitude,infamy,and poverty.他们可以给你权力、荣誉和财富,但却用奴役、耻辱和贫穷来折磨你。
  2. Traitors are held in infamy.叛徒为人所不齿。
2 deliberately Gulzvq     
adv.审慎地;蓄意地;故意地
参考例句:
  1. The girl gave the show away deliberately.女孩故意泄露秘密。
  2. They deliberately shifted off the argument.他们故意回避这个论点。
3 naval h1lyU     
adj.海军的,军舰的,船的
参考例句:
  1. He took part in a great naval battle.他参加了一次大海战。
  2. The harbour is an important naval base.该港是一个重要的海军基地。
4 solicitation LwXwc     
n.诱惑;揽货;恳切地要求;游说
参考例句:
  1. Make the first solicitation of the three scheduled this quarter. 进行三位名单上预期捐助人作本季第一次邀请捐献。 来自互联网
  2. Section IV is about the proxy solicitation system and corporate governance. 随后对委托书的格式、内容、期限以及能否实行有偿征集、征集费用由谁承担以及违反该制度的法律责任进行论述,并提出自己的一些见解。 来自互联网
5 negotiations af4b5f3e98e178dd3c4bac64b625ecd0     
协商( negotiation的名词复数 ); 谈判; 完成(难事); 通过
参考例句:
  1. negotiations for a durable peace 为持久和平而进行的谈判
  2. Negotiations have failed to establish any middle ground. 谈判未能达成任何妥协。
6 torpedoed d479f6a26c6f383df7093841f7bfff3e     
用鱼雷袭击(torpedo的过去式与过去分词形式)
参考例句:
  1. Her comments had torpedoed the deal. 她的一番话使得那笔交易彻底告吹。
  2. The battle ship was torpedoed. 该战列舰遭到了鱼雷的袭击。
7 defense AxbxB     
n.防御,保卫;[pl.]防务工事;辩护,答辩
参考例句:
  1. The accused has the right to defense.被告人有权获得辩护。
  2. The war has impacted the area with military and defense workers.战争使那个地区挤满了军队和防御工程人员。
8 hostilities 4c7c8120f84e477b36887af736e0eb31     
n.战争;敌意(hostility的复数);敌对状态;战事
参考例句:
  1. Mexico called for an immediate cessation of hostilities. 墨西哥要求立即停止敌对行动。
  2. All the old hostilities resurfaced when they met again. 他们再次碰面时,过去的种种敌意又都冒了出来。
9 inevitable 5xcyq     
adj.不可避免的,必然发生的
参考例句:
  1. Mary was wearing her inevitable large hat.玛丽戴着她总是戴的那顶大帽子。
  2. The defeat had inevitable consequences for British policy.战败对英国政策不可避免地产生了影响。
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