Life and Philosophy
文章来源:未知 文章作者:enread 发布时间:2012-11-29 03:31 字体: [ ]  进入论坛
(单词翻译:双击或拖选)
In history no philosopher has ever affected1 more individual lives than Confucius did. For around 2000 years Confucianism was "…the most important single force in Chinese life…". His beliefs were formed when he was a young man. Dismayed by the state China was in. He wanted people with power to adopt better morals and compassion2. He thought that for peace to be reached, people needed to find li (courtesy) in there lives. Meaning that society could only reach the "ideal" if everyone was moral and responsible. Confucius never saw what his ideas did for China; dying many centuries before they were recognized. Confucius's life was to him unfulfilling but the influence he had on the world would rival most religious figures.
 
Confucius was born in Chou, Lu (which is now the Shandong Province). His father (Shu-Liang Ho) died when he was 3 and his mother (Yan Zhengzai) died when he was 23. Confucius was born a basted3(溜油) and received much distained from others. He was not allowed to get an education because he was considered a peasant; however he had a deep interest in spirituality and Chinese traditions. He found a way to educate himself though; by working for a nobleman he gained access to Chinese writings and art. He became well respected for his fairness and his knowledge of Chinese traditions. He was happy to teach any one who wanted to be taught and quickly people were lining4 up to see him. Duke Chao admired him so much that he game him a job as an advisor5. When Chao was exiled from Lu Confucius followed him to Ch'i. In Ch'i he earned the same respect that he had in Lu but the Duke of the state wouldn't put Confucius's doctrines6 into practice even though he believed in them. In 511 B.C. Chao died in exile and Confucius returned to Lu where he gave up on government and started a private school. People came from far and wide to be taught by Confucius. "Confucius was changing China one student at a time"。
 
"To put the world in order, we must first put the nation in order; to put the nation in order, we must put the family in order; to put the family in order, we must cultivate our personal life; and to cultivate our personal life, we must first set our heart right." To "set our heart right" according to Confucius we needed to posses five qualities. These are integrity, righteousness, loyalty7, altruism8 and jen (to respect all living things). Confucius also believed in a code of conduct. The code says that: we should only have or experience things in moderation. We should do what is expected of us to the best of our abilities. We should know place in a relationship. We should be respectful to our elders. Confucius believed that only if each individual person did these things would we be able to reach the "ideal" society. Confucianism didn't become widely known across China until the Han Dynasty; under emperor Wu. When it finally was recognised it took off in China, it became China's main ideology9. Confucianism is still respected that there are temples that have Budda Confucius all together.
 
Confucius was born a mere10 peasant who learned to teach. His teachings were not fully11 appreciated in his lifetime and often he was viewed with suspicion as was government fearful of his influence. However for over 20 centuries people have embraced his ideas and philosophy. This includes his code of conduct that instructs us to work harder and think of others instead of just ourselves. All though his life his aim was to make a better world.


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 affected TzUzg0     
adj.不自然的,假装的
参考例句:
  1. She showed an affected interest in our subject.她假装对我们的课题感到兴趣。
  2. His manners are affected.他的态度不自然。
2 compassion 3q2zZ     
n.同情,怜悯
参考例句:
  1. He could not help having compassion for the poor creature.他情不自禁地怜悯起那个可怜的人来。
  2. Her heart was filled with compassion for the motherless children.她对于没有母亲的孩子们充满了怜悯心。
3 basted 87bfdf6905a5c84b5ebdaa0ff333f45a     
v.打( baste的过去式和过去分词 );粗缝;痛斥;(烤肉等时)往上抹[浇]油
参考例句:
  1. The turkey is basted to keep it from drying out. 烤火鸡时润以油脂以免烤干。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  2. Meat is basted to keep it from drying out and to improve its flavour. 烤肉时润以脂油使不致烤焦并可增加香味。 来自《简明英汉词典》
4 lining kpgzTO     
n.衬里,衬料
参考例句:
  1. The lining of my coat is torn.我的外套衬里破了。
  2. Moss makes an attractive lining to wire baskets.用苔藓垫在铁丝篮里很漂亮。
5 advisor JKByk     
n.顾问,指导老师,劝告者
参考例句:
  1. They employed me as an advisor.他们聘请我当顾问。
  2. The professor is engaged as a technical advisor.这位教授被聘请为技术顾问。
6 doctrines 640cf8a59933d263237ff3d9e5a0f12e     
n.教条( doctrine的名词复数 );教义;学说;(政府政策的)正式声明
参考例句:
  1. To modern eyes, such doctrines appear harsh, even cruel. 从现代的角度看,这样的教义显得苛刻,甚至残酷。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  2. His doctrines have seduced many into error. 他的学说把许多人诱入歧途。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
7 loyalty gA9xu     
n.忠诚,忠心
参考例句:
  1. She told him the truth from a sense of loyalty.她告诉他真相是出于忠诚。
  2. His loyalty to his friends was never in doubt.他对朋友的一片忠心从来没受到怀疑。
8 altruism LxIzO     
n.利他主义,不自私
参考例句:
  1. An important feature of moral behaviour is altruism.道德行为一个重要特点就是利他主义。
  2. Altruism is crucial for social cohesion.利他主义对社会的凝聚是至关重要的。
9 ideology Scfzg     
n.意识形态,(政治或社会的)思想意识
参考例句:
  1. The ideology has great influence in the world.这种思想体系在世界上有很大的影响。
  2. The ideal is to strike a medium between ideology and inspiration.我的理想是在意识思想和灵感鼓动之间找到一个折衷。
10 mere rC1xE     
adj.纯粹的;仅仅,只不过
参考例句:
  1. That is a mere repetition of what you said before.那不过是重复了你以前讲的话。
  2. It's a mere waste of time waiting any longer.再等下去纯粹是浪费时间。
11 fully Gfuzd     
adv.完全地,全部地,彻底地;充分地
参考例句:
  1. The doctor asked me to breathe in,then to breathe out fully.医生让我先吸气,然后全部呼出。
  2. They soon became fully integrated into the local community.他们很快就完全融入了当地人的圈子。
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